ECMP load balancing with masquerade
Spanish version of this article: Balanceo de carga mejorado persistente
This example is improved (different) version of round-robin load balancing example. It adds persistent user sessions, i.e. a particular user would use the same source IP address for all outgoing connections. Consider the following network layout:
Quick Start for Impatient
Configuration export from the gateway router:
'''/ ip address''' add address=192.168.0.1/24 network=192.168.0.0 broadcast=192.168.0.255 interface=Local add address=10.111.0.2/24 network=10.111.0.0 broadcast=10.111.0.255 interface=wlan2 add address=10.112.0.2/24 network=10.112.0.0 broadcast=10.112.0.255 interface=wlan1 '''/ ip route''' add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping '''/ ip firewall nat''' add chain=srcnat connection-mark=odd action=src-nat to-addresses=10.111.0.2 \ to-ports=0-65535 add chain=srcnat connection-mark=even action=src-nat to-addresses=10.112.0.2 \ to-ports=0-65535
First we give a code snippet and then explain what it actually does.
/ ip address add address=192.168.0.1/24 network=192.168.0.0 broadcast=192.168.0.255 interface=Local add address=10.111.0.2/24 network=10.111.0.0 broadcast=10.111.0.255 interface=wlan2 add address=10.112.0.2/24 network=10.112.0.0 broadcast=10.112.0.255 interface=wlan1
The router has two upstream (WAN) interfaces with the addresses of 10.111.0.2/24 and 10.112.0.2/24. The LAN interface has the name "Local" and IP address of 192.168.0.1/24.
/ ip firewall nat add chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.0.0/24 action=masquerade
As routing decision is already made we just need rule that will fix src-addresses for all outgoing packets. if this packet will leave via wlan1 it will be NATed to 10.112.0.2/24, if via wlan2 then NATed to 10.111.0.2/24
/ ip route add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping
This is typical ECMP (Equal Cost Multi-Path) gateway with check-gateway. ECMP is "persistent per-connection load balancing" or "per-src-dst-address combination load balancing". As soon as one of the gateway will not be reachable, check-gateway will remove it from gateway list. And you will have a "failover" effect.
You can use asymmetric bandwidth links also - for example one link is 2Mbps other 10Mbps. Just use this command to make load balancing 1:5
/ ip route add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping