ECMP load balancing with masquerade

From MikroTik Wiki
Revision as of 11:38, 19 March 2009 by Megis (talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

Spanish version of this article: Balanceo de carga mejorado persistente

Introduction

This example is improved (different) version of round-robin load balancing example. It adds persistent user sessions, i.e. a particular user would use the same source IP address for all outgoing connections. Consider the following network layout:

LoadBalancing.jpg

Quick Start for Impatient

Configuration export from the gateway router:

'''/ ip address''' 
add address=192.168.0.1/24 network=192.168.0.0 broadcast=192.168.0.255 interface=Local 
add address=10.111.0.2/24 network=10.111.0.0 broadcast=10.111.0.255 interface=wlan2
add address=10.112.0.2/24 network=10.112.0.0 broadcast=10.112.0.255 interface=wlan1

'''/ ip route''' 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping 

'''/ ip firewall nat''' 
add chain=srcnat out-interface=wlan1 action=masquerade
add chain=srcnat out-interface=wlan2 action=masquerade

'''/ ip firewall mangle'''
add chain=input in-interface=wlan1 action=mark-connection new-connection-mark=wlan1_conn
add chain=input in-interface=wlan2 action=mark-connection new-connection-mark=wlan2_conn
add chain=output connection-mark=wlan1_conn action=mark-routing new-routing-mark=to_wla1     
add chain=output connection-mark=wlan1_conn action=mark-routing new-routing-mark=to_wla2     

'''/ ip route''' 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1 routing-mark=to_wla1 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.2 routing-mark=to_wla2

Explanation

First we give a code snippet and then explain what it actually does.

IP Addresses

/ ip address 
add address=192.168.0.1/24 network=192.168.0.0 broadcast=192.168.0.255 interface=Local
add address=10.111.0.2/24 network=10.111.0.0 broadcast=10.111.0.255 interface=wlan2 
add address=10.112.0.2/24 network=10.112.0.0 broadcast=10.112.0.255 interface=wlan1 

The router has two upstream (WAN) interfaces with the addresses of 10.111.0.2/24 and 10.112.0.2/24. The LAN interface has the name "Local" and IP address of 192.168.0.1/24.


NAT

/ ip firewall nat 
add chain=srcnat out-interface=wlan1 action=masquerade
add chain=srcnat out-interface=wlan2 action=masquerade

As routing decision is already made we just need rules that will fix src-addresses for all outgoing packets. if this packet will leave via wlan1 it will be NATed to 10.112.0.2/24, if via wlan2 then NATed to 10.111.0.2/24


Routing

/ ip route 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping 

This is typical ECMP (Equal Cost Multi-Path) gateway with check-gateway. ECMP is "persistent per-connection load balancing" or "per-src-dst-address combination load balancing". As soon as one of the gateway will not be reachable, check-gateway will remove it from gateway list. And you will have a "failover" effect.


You can use asymmetric bandwidth links also - for example one link is 2Mbps other 10Mbps. Just use this command to make load balancing 1:5

/ ip route 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1,10.112.0.1 check-gateway=ping 


Connections to the router itself

/ ip firewall mangle

add chain=input in-interface=wlan1 action=mark-connection new-connection-mark=wlan1_conn
add chain=input in-interface=wlan2 action=mark-connection new-connection-mark=wlan2_conn
add chain=output connection-mark=wlan1_conn action=mark-routing new-routing-mark=to_wla1     
add chain=output connection-mark=wlan1_conn action=mark-routing new-routing-mark=to_wla2     

/ ip route

add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.1 routing-mark=to_wla1 
add dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.111.0.2 routing-mark=to_wla2

With all multi-gateway situations there is a usual problem to reach router from public network via one, other or both gateways. Explanations is very simple - Outgoing packets uses same routing decision as packets that are going trough the router. So reply to a packet that was received via wlan1 might be send out and masqueraded via wlan2.

To avoid that we need to policy routing those connections.


Possible DNS issues

ISP specific DNS servers might have custom configuration that treats specific requests from ISP's network differently than requests from other network. So in case connection is made via other gateway those sites will not be accessible.

To avoid that we suggest to use 3rd-party (public) DNS servers, and in case you need ISP specific recourse, create static DNS entry and policy route that traffic to specific gateway.