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layer7-protocol is a method of looking for patterns in connections.

First, add Regexp strings to the protocols menu, to define strings you will be looking for.

/ip firewall layer7-protocol add=

Then, use the defined protocols in firewall:

/ip firewall filter add layer7-protocol=

RouterOS will look for these strings in all connections passing the firewall rule where you use this. As this is resource intensive, make sure to filter out all good traffic before it hits this rule.

You can download a script with a list of common programs here (only for RouterOS v3 RC6). Pattern libraries can be found on the layer7 project page and on the protocol wiki.