Difference between revisions of "Manual:IP/IPsec"

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(Mode configs)
(Troubleshooting/FAQ)
 
(25 intermediate revisions by one other user not shown)
Line 5: Line 5:
 
<b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec</code><br />
 
<b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec</code><br />
 
<b>Package required:</b> <code>security</code><br />
 
<b>Package required:</b> <code>security</code><br />
<b>Standards:</b> <code>RFC 4301</code><br />
 
 
</p>
 
</p>
  
Line 12: Line 11:
  
  
IpSec protocol suite can be divided in following groups:
+
IPsec protocol suite can be divided in following groups:
 +
* <b>Internet Key Exchange (IKE)</b> protocols. Dynamically generates and distributes cryptographic keys for AH and ESP.
 
* <b>Authentication Header (AH)</b> RFC 4302
 
* <b>Authentication Header (AH)</b> RFC 4302
 
* <b>Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)</b> RFC 4303
 
* <b>Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)</b> RFC 4303
* <b>Internet Key Exchange (IKE)</b> protocols. Dynamically generates and distributes cryptographic keys for AH and ESP.
 
  
 
==Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)==
 
==Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)==
Line 66: Line 65:
 
<tr><td>Group 16</td><td>4096 bits MODP group</td><td>RFC 3526</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>Group 16</td><td>4096 bits MODP group</td><td>RFC 3526</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>Group 17</td><td>6144 bits MODP group</td><td>RFC 3526</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>Group 17</td><td>6144 bits MODP group</td><td>RFC 3526</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>Group 18</td><td>8192 bits MODP group</td><td>RFC 3526</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>Group 19</td><td>256 bits random ECP group</td><td>RFC 5903</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>Group 20</td><td>384 bits random ECP group</td><td>RFC 5903</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>Group 21</td><td>521 bits random ECP group</td><td>RFC 5903</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
Line 219: Line 222:
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/cap_ac RBcAPGi-5acD2nD (cAP ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/cap_ac RBcAPGi-5acD2nD (cAP ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/hap_ac2 RBD52G-5HacD2HnD (hAP ac<sup>2</sup>)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/hap_ac2 RBD52G-5HacD2HnD (hAP ac<sup>2</sup>)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/disc_lite5_ac RBDiscG-5acD (DISC Lite5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/ldf_5_ac RBLDFG-5acD (LDF 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/ldf_5_ac RBLDFG-5acD (LDF 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/lhg_5_ac RBLHGG-5acD (LHG 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/lhg_5_ac RBLHGG-5acD (LHG 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/lhg_xl_5_ac RBLHGG-5acD-XL (LHG XL 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/lhg_xl_5_ac RBLHGG-5acD-XL (LHG XL 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/wireless_wire_dish RBLHGG-60ad (Wireless Wire Dish)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/m11g RBM11G]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/m11g RBM11G]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/rbm33g RBM33G]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/rbm33g RBM33G]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/sxtsq_5_ac RBSXTsqG-5acD (SXTsq 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/sxtsq_5_ac RBSXTsqG-5acD (SXTsq 5 ac)] *</td><td>no</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/wap_60g RBwAPG-60ad (wAP 60G)] *</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/wap_60g_ap RBwAPG-60ad-A (wAP 60G AP)] *</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/rb450gx4 RB450Gx4] *</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB750Gr3 RB750Gr3 (hEX)]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB750Gr3 RB750Gr3 (hEX)]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/hex_s RB760iGS (hEX S)]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB850Gx2 RB850Gx2] **</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB850Gx2 RB850Gx2] **</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB1100AHx2 RB1100AHx2]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>[https://mikrotik.com/product/RB1100AHx2 RB1100AHx2]</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>yes</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td><td>no</td></tr>
Line 242: Line 251:
 
IPsec throughput results of various encryption and hash algorithm combinations are published on [https://mikrotik.com/product/ MikroTik products page]. When testing throughput, please follow the guidelines available in the  [[Manual:Tools/Traffic_Generator#IpSec_tunnel_performance_test|Traffic Generator manual page]]
 
IPsec throughput results of various encryption and hash algorithm combinations are published on [https://mikrotik.com/product/ MikroTik products page]. When testing throughput, please follow the guidelines available in the  [[Manual:Tools/Traffic_Generator#IpSec_tunnel_performance_test|Traffic Generator manual page]]
  
==Mode configs==
+
==Policies==
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec mode-config</code></p>
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec policy</code></p>
  
  
ISAKMP and IKEv2 configuration attributes are configured in this menu.
+
Policy table is used to determine whether security settings should be applied to a packet.
  
  
Line 257: Line 266:
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=address-pool
+
|arg=action
|type=none {{!}} string
+
|type=discard {{!}} encrypt {{!}} none
|default=
+
|default=encrypt
|desc=Name of the address pool from which responder will try to assign address if mode-config is enabled.
+
|desc=Specifies what to do with packet matched by the policy.
}}
+
* <var>none</var> - pass the packet unchanged.
 
+
* <var>discard</var> - drop the packet.
{{Mr-arg-table
+
* <var>encrypt</var> - apply transformations specified in this policy and it's SA.
|arg=address-prefix-length
 
|type=integer [1..32]
 
|default=
 
|desc=Prefix length (netmask) of assigned address from the pool.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 274: Line 279:
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
 
|default=
 
|default=
|desc=
+
|desc=Short description of the policy.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=name
+
|arg=disabled
|type=string
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=
+
|default=no
|desc=
+
|desc=Whether policy is used to match packets.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=split-include
+
|arg=dst-address
|type=list of IP prefix
+
|type=IP/IPv6 prefix
|default=
+
|default=0.0.0.0/32
|desc=List of subnets in CIDR format, which to tunnel. Subnets will be sent to the peer using CISCO UNITY extension, remote peer will create specific dynamic policies.
+
|desc=Destination address to be matched in packets.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=static-dns
+
|arg=dst-port
|type=list of IP
+
|type=integer:0..65535 {{!}} any
|default=
+
|default=any
|desc=Manually specified DNS server's IP address to be sent to the client.
+
|desc=Destination port to be matched in packets. If set to <var>any</var> all ports will be matched.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=system-dns
+
|arg=group
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=string
|default=
+
|default=default
|desc=When this option is enabled DNS addresses will be taken from <code>/ip dns</code>.
+
|desc=Name of the [[#Groups | policy group]] to which this template is assigned.
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
'''Read only properties'''
+
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=ipsec-protocols
 +
|type=ah {{!}} esp
 +
|default=esp
 +
|desc=Specifies what combination  of Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload protocols you want to apply to matched traffic.
 +
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|prop=Property
+
|arg=level
|desc=Description
+
|type=require {{!}} unique {{!}} use
 +
|default=require
 +
|desc=Specifies what to do if some of the SAs for this policy cannot be found:
 +
* <var>use</var> - skip this transform, do not drop packet and do not acquire SA from IKE daemon;
 +
* <var>require</var> - drop packet and acquire SA;
 +
* <var>unique</var> - drop packet and acquire a unique SA that is only used with this particular policy. It is used in setups where multiple clients can sit behind one public IP address (clients behind NAT).
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=default
+
|arg=proposal
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=string
|default=
+
|default=default
|desc=Whether this is a default system entry.
+
|desc=Name of the [[#Proposals|proposal template]] that will be sent by IKE daemon to establish SAs for this policy.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{ Note | Not all IKE implementations support multiple split networks provided by split-include option. }}
+
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=protocol
 +
|type=all {{!}}  egp {{!}} ggp{{!}} icmp {{!}} igmp {{!}} ...
 +
|default=all
 +
|desc=IP packet protocol to match.
 +
}}
  
{{ Note | If RouterOS client is initiator, it will always send CISCO UNITY extension, and RouterOS supports only split-include from this extension.}}
+
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=sa-dst-address
 +
|type=ip/ipv6 address
 +
|default=::
 +
|desc=SA destination IP/IPv6 address (remote peer).
 +
}}
  
{{ Note | It is not possible to use system-dns and static-dns at the same time.}}
+
{{Mr-arg-table
 
+
|arg=sa-src-address
==Users==
+
|type=ip/ipv6 address
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec user</code></p>
+
|default=::
 
+
|desc=SA source IP/IPv6 address (local peer).
 
 
The menu consists of list of allowed XAuth users.
 
 
 
 
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
|prop=Property
 
|desc=Description
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=address
+
|arg=src-address
|type=IP
+
|type=ip/ipv6 prefix
|default=
+
|default=0.0.0.0/32
|desc=IP address assigned to the client. If not set dynamic address is used allocated from the address-pool defined in [[#Mode_config | Mode config]] menu.
+
|desc=Source address to be matched in packets.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=name
+
|arg=src-port
|type=string
+
|type=any {{!}} integer:0..65535
|default=
+
|default=any
|desc=Username.
+
|desc=Source port to be matched in packets. If set to <var>any</var> all ports will be matched.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=template
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|default=no
 +
|desc=Creates a template and assigns it to specified [[#Groups | policy group]].
 +
Following parameters are used by template:
 +
* <var>group</var> - name of the [[#Groups | policy group]] to which this template is assigned;
 +
* <var>src-address</var>, <var>dst-address</var> - Requested subnet must match in both directions(for example 0.0.0.0/0 to allow all);
 +
* <var>protocol</var> - protocol to match, if set to all, then any protocol is accepted;
 +
* <var>proposal</var> - SA parameters used for this template;
 +
* <var>level</var> - useful when <var>unique</var> is required in setups with multiple clients behind NAT.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-end
 
{{Mr-arg-table-end
|arg=password
+
|arg=tunnel
|type=string
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=
+
|default=no
|desc=Password.
+
|desc=Specifies whether to use tunnel mode.
 
}}
 
}}
  
===Settings===
 
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec user settings</code></p>
 
  
 +
'''Read only properties'''
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 368: Line 398:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=xauth-use-radius
+
|arg=active
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=
+
|desc=Whether this policy is currently in use.
|desc=Whether to use [[Manual:RADIUS_Client | Radius client]] for XAuth users or not.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{ Note | Radius accounting currently is not supported by IPsec, only authentication. }}
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=default
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|desc=Whether this is a default system entry.
 +
}}
  
==Peer configuration==
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec peer</code></p>
+
|arg=dynamic
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|desc=Whether this is a dynamically added or generated entry.
 +
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=invalid
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|desc=Whether this policy is invalid - possible cause is duplicate policy with the same <var>src-address</var> and <var>dst-address</var>.
 +
}}
  
Peer configuration settings are used to establish connections between IKE daemons ([[#Internet_Key_Exchange_Protocol | '''phase 1''']] configuration). This connection then will be used to negotiate keys and algorithms for SAs.
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=ph2-count
 +
|type=integer
 +
|desc=Number of active phase 2 sessions associated with the policy.
 +
}}
  
Starting from v6rc12 responder side now uses initiator exchange type for peer config selection. It means that you can configure multiple ipsec peers with the same address but different exchange modes.
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=ph2-state
 +
|type=expired {{!}} no-phase2 {{!}} established
 +
|desc=Indication of the progress of key establishing.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
 +
|arg=priority
 +
|type=
 +
|desc=Shows kernel priority.
 +
}}
  
{{Note | exchange modes '''main''' and '''l2tp-main''' are treated the same, so these modes cannot be used select config between multiple peers.}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
{{Warning | policy order is important starting form v6.40. Now it works similar as firewall filters where policies are executed from top to bottom (<var>priority</var> parameter is removed).}}
|prop=Property
 
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Note |
|arg=address
+
All packets are IPIP encapsulated in tunnel mode, and their new IP header's src-address and dst-address are set to sa-src-address and sa-dst-address values of this policy. If you do not use tunnel mode (id est you use transport mode), then only packets whose source and destination addresses are the same as sa-src-address and sa-dst-address can be processed by this policy. Transport mode can only work with packets that originate at and are destined for IPsec peers (hosts that established security associations). To encrypt traffic between networks (or a network and a host) you have to use tunnel mode.
|type=IP/IPv6 Prefix
 
|default=0.0.0.0/0
 
|desc=If remote peer's address matches this prefix, then the peer configuration is used in authentication and establishment of '''Phase 1'''. If several peer's addresses match several configuration entries, the most specific one (i.e. the one with largest netmask) will be used.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
===Groups===
|arg=auth-method
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec policy group</code></p>
|type=eap-radius {{!}} pre-shared-key {{!}} pre-shared-key-xauth {{!}} rsa-signature {{!}} rsa-key {{!}} rsa-signature-hybrid
+
 
|default=pre-shared-key
+
 
|desc=Authentication method:
+
In this menu it is possible to create additional policy groups used by policy templates.
* <var>eap-radius</var> - IKEv2 EAP RADIUS passthrough authentication for responder (RFC 3579). Server certificate in this case is required. If server certificate is not specified then only clients supporting EAP-only (RFC 5998) will be able to connect. Note that EAP method should be compatible with EAP-only.
+
 
* <var>pre-shared-key</var> - authenticate by a password (secret) string shared between the peers
+
 
* <var>rsa-signature</var> - authenticate using a pair of RSA certificates
+
'''Properties'''
* <var>rsa-key</var> - authenticate using a RSA key imported in [[#Keys | Ipsec key]] menu.
 
* <var>pre-shared-key-xauth</var> - mutual PSK authentication + xauth username/password. <var>passive</var> parameter identifies server/client side
 
* <var>rsa-signature-hybrid</var> - responder certificate authentication with initiator Xauth. <var>passive</var> parameter identifies server/client side
 
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=certificate
+
|arg=name
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
 
|default=
 
|default=
|desc=Name of a certificate listed in [[M:System/Certificates | certificate table]] (signing packets; the certificate must have private key). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method (auth-method=rsa-signature) is used.
+
|desc=
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
 
|arg=comment
 
|arg=comment
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
 
|default=
 
|default=
|desc=Short description of the peer.
+
|desc=
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
===Statistics===
|arg=compatibility-options
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec statistics</code></p>
|type=skip-peer-id-validation
+
 
|default=
+
 
|desc=Compatibility options to work with peers not following RFC guidelines.
+
This menu shows various IPsec statistics and errors.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Read only properties'''
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=dh-group
+
|arg=in-errors
|type=ec2n155  {{!}} ec2n185  {{!}} modp1024  {{!}} modp1536  {{!}} modp2048  {{!}} modp3072  {{!}} modp4096  {{!}} modp6144  {{!}} modp768
+
|type=integer
|default=modp1024
+
|desc=All inbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
|desc=[[#Diffie-Hellman Groups | Diffie-Hellman group]] (cipher strength)
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=disabled
+
|arg=in-buffer-errors
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=integer
|default=no
+
|desc=No free buffer.
|desc=Whether peer is used to match remote peer's prefix.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=dpd-interval
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=time {{!}} disable-dpd
+
|arg=in-header-errors
|default=2m
+
|type=integer
|desc=Dead peer detection interval. If set to <var>disable-dpd</var>, dead peer detection will not be used.
+
|desc=Header error.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=dpd-maximum-failures
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=integer: 1..100
+
|arg=in-no-states
|default=5
+
|type=integer
|desc=Maximum count of failures until peer is considered to be dead. Applicable if DPD is enabled.
+
|desc=No state is found i.e. either inbound SPI, address, or IPsec protocol at SA is wrong.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=enc-algorithm
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=3des {{!}} aes-128 {{!}} aes-192 {{!}} aes-256 {{!}} blowfish {{!}} camellia-128 {{!}} camellia-192 {{!}} camellia-256 {{!}} des
+
|arg=in-state-protocol-errors
|default=aes-128
+
|type=integer
|desc=List of encryption algorithms that will be used by the peer.
+
|desc=Transformation protocol specific error, for example SA key is wrong or hardware accelerator is unable to handle amount of packets.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=exchange-mode
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=aggressive {{!}} base {{!}} main {{!}} main-l2tp {{!}} ike2
+
|arg=in-state-mode-errors
|default=main
+
|type=integer
|desc=Different ISAKMP phase 1 exchange modes according to RFC 2408. Do not use other modes then main unless you know what you are doing.
+
|desc=Transformation mode specific error.
'''main-l2tp''' mode relaxes rfc2409 section 5.4, to allow pre-shared-key authentication in main mode. <var>ike2</var> mode enables Ikev2 RFC 7296. Parameters that are ignored by Ikev2 <var>proposal-check</var>, <var>compatibility-options</var>, <var>lifebytes</var>, <var>dpd-maximum-failures</var>.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=generate-policy
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=no {{!}} port-override {{!}} port-strict
+
|arg=in-state-sequence-errors
|default=no
+
|type=integer
|desc=Allow this peer to establish SA for non-existing policies. Such policies are created dynamically for the lifetime of SA. Automatic policies allows, for example, to create IPsec secured [[M:Interface/L2TP | L2TP]] tunnels, or any other setup where remote peer's IP address is not known at the configuration time.
+
|desc=Sequence number is out of window.
* <var>no</var> - do not generate policies
 
* <var>port-override</var> -- generate policies and force policy to use '''any''' port (old behavior)
 
* <var>port-strict</var> -- use ports from peer's proposal, which should match peer's policy
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
 
|arg=hash-algorithm
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|type=md5 {{!}} sha1 {{!}} sha256 {{!}} sha512
+
|arg=in-state-expired
|default=sha1
+
|type=integer
|desc=Hashing algorithm. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
+
|desc=State is expired.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=key
+
|arg=in-state-mismatches
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=State has mismatched option, for example UDP encapsulation type is mismatched.  
|desc=Name of the key from [[#Keys | key menu]]. Applicable if auth-method=rsa-key.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=lifebytes
+
|arg=in-state-invalid
|type=Integer: 0..4294967295
+
|type=integer
|default=0
+
|desc=State is invalid.
|desc=Phase 1 lifebytes is used only as administrative value which is added to proposal. Used in cases if remote peer requires specific lifebytes value to establish phase 1.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=lifetime
+
|arg=in-template-mismatches
|type=time
+
|type=integer
|default=1d
+
|desc=No matching template for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but SP rule is wrong. Possible cause is mismatched sa-source or sa-destination address.
|desc=Phase 1 lifetime: specifies how long the SA will be valid.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=local-address
+
|arg=in-no-policies
|type=IP/IPv6 Address
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=No policy is found for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but no SP is found.
|desc=Routers local address on which Phase 1 should be bounded to.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=mode-config
+
|arg=in-policy-blocked
|type=none {{!}} request-only {{!}} string
+
|type=integer
|default=none
+
|desc=Policy discards.
|desc=Name of the mode config parameters from [[#Mode_Config | <code>mode-config</code> menu]]. When parameter is set mode-config is enabled.
 
* initiator peer on phase1 will send mode-config request and will set assigned IP address and DNS.
 
* responder will assign ip address if address-pool is specified, will send also DNS server addresses and split-include subnets (if defined).
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=my-id
+
|arg=in-policy-errors
|type=auto {{!}} fqdn {{!}} user-fqdn {{!}} key-id
+
|type=integer
|default=auto
+
|desc=Policy errors.
|desc=This parameter sets IKE ID to specified mode. It is possible to manually set two modes FQDN and USER_FQDN.
 
* '''FQDN''' - fully qualified domain name
 
* '''USER_FQDN''' - specifies a fully-qualified username string, for example, "user@domain.com";
 
* '''address''' - IP address is used as ID;
 
* '''auto''' - tries to use correct ID automatically: IP for PSK, FQDN for Cert based connections;
 
* '''key-id''' - Use the specified key-id for the identity
 
 
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=nat-traversal
+
|arg=out-errors
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=integer
|default=no
+
|desc=All outbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
|desc=Use Linux NAT-T mechanism to solve IPsec incompatibility with NAT routers inbetween IPsec peers. This can only be used with ESP protocol (AH is not supported by design, as it signs the complete packet, including IP header, which is changed by NAT, rendering AH signature invalid). The method encapsulates IPsec ESP traffic into UDP streams in order to overcome some minor issues that made ESP incompatible with NAT.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=notrack-chain
+
|arg=out-bundle-errors
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=Bundle generation error.
|desc=Adds raw firewall rules matching ipsec policy to specified chain.  
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=passive
+
|arg=out-bundle-check-errors
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=integer
|default=no
+
|desc=Bundle check error.
|desc=When passive mode is enabled will wait for remote peer to initiate IKE connection. Enabled passive mode also indicates that peer is xauth responder, and disabled passive mode - xauth initiator. When passive mode is disabled peer will try to establish not only phase1, but also phase2 automatically, if policies are configured or created during phase1.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=policy-template-group
+
|arg=out-no-states
|type=none {{!}} string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=No state is found.
|desc=If generate-policy is enabled, responder checks against templates from the same [[#Policy_Groups | group]]. If none of the templates match, Phase2 SA will not be established.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=port
+
|arg=out-state-protocol-errors
|type=integer:0..65535
+
|type=integer
|default=500
+
|desc=Transformation protocol specific error.
|desc=Communication port used (when router is initiator) to connect to remote peer in cases if remote peer uses non-default port.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=proposal-check
+
|arg=out-state-mode-errors
|type=claim {{!}} exact {{!}} obey {{!}} strict
+
|type=integer
|default=obey
+
|desc=Transformation mode specific error.
|desc=Phase 2 lifetime check logic:
 
* <var>claim</var> - take shortest of proposed and configured lifetimes and notify initiator about it
 
* <var>exact</var> -  require lifetimes to be the same
 
* <var>obey</var> -  accept whatever is sent by an initiator
 
* <var>strict</var> -  if proposed lifetime is longer than the default then reject proposal otherwise accept proposed lifetime
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=remote-certificate
+
|arg=out-state-sequence-errors
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=Sequence errors, for example sequence number overflow.
|desc=Name of a certificate  (listed in [[M:System/Certificates | certificate table]]) for authenticating the remote side (validating packets; no private key required). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method is used.
 
If remote-certificate is not specified then received certificate from remote peer is used and checked against CA in [[Manual:System/Certificates | certificate store]]. Proper CA must be imported in certificate store.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=secret
+
|arg=out-state-expired
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=State is expired.
|desc=Secret string (in case pre-shared key authentication is used). If it starts with '0x', it is parsed as a hexadecimal value
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=send-initial-contact
+
|arg=out-policy-blocked
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=integer
|default=yes
+
|desc=Policy discards.
|desc=Specifies whether to send "initial contact" IKE packet or wait for remote side, this packet should trigger removal of old peer SAs for current source address.
 
Usually in road warrior setups clients are initiators and this parameter should be set to no. Initial contact is not sent if modecfg or xauth is enabled for ikev1.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=xauth-login
+
|arg=out-policy-dead
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=Policy is dead.
|desc=initiator (client) XAuth username
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=xauth-password
+
|arg=out-policy-errors
|type=string
+
|type=integer
|default=
+
|desc=Policy error.
|desc=initiator (client) XAuth password
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 +
==Peers==
 +
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec peer</code></p>
  
{{Note |
 
IPSec phases information is erased, when /ip ipsec peer configuration is modified on the fly, however packets are being encrypted/decrypted because of installed-sa (for example remote-peers information is erased, when peer configuration is modified.}}
 
  
==Keys==
+
Peer configuration settings are used to establish connections between IKE daemons. This connection then will be used to negotiate keys and algorithms for SAs. Exchange mode is the only unique identifier between the peers, meaning that there can be multiple peer configurations with the same <var>remote-address</var> as long as different <var>exchange-mode</var> is used.
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec key</code></p>
 
 
 
 
 
This menu lists all imported public andprivate keys, that can be used for peer authentication. Menu has several commands to work with keys.
 
  
  
Line 645: Line 659:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=name
+
|arg=address
|type=string
+
|type=IP/IPv6 Prefix
|default=
+
|default=0.0.0.0/0
|desc=
+
|desc=If remote peer's address matches this prefix, then the peer configuration is used in authentication and establishment of '''Phase 1'''. If several peer's addresses match several configuration entries, the most specific one (i.e. the one with largest netmask) will be used.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=auth-method
 +
|type=eap-radius {{!}} pre-shared-key {{!}} pre-shared-key-xauth {{!}} rsa-signature {{!}} rsa-key {{!}} rsa-signature-hybrid
 +
|default=pre-shared-key
 +
|desc=Authentication method:
 +
* <var>eap-radius</var> - IKEv2 EAP RADIUS passthrough authentication for responder (RFC 3579). Server certificate in this case is required. If server certificate is not specified then only clients supporting EAP-only (RFC 5998) will be able to connect. Note that EAP method should be compatible with EAP-only.
 +
* <var>pre-shared-key</var> - authenticate by a password (secret) string shared between the peers
 +
* <var>rsa-signature</var> - authenticate using a pair of RSA certificates
 +
* <var>rsa-key</var> - authenticate using a RSA key imported in [[#Keys | Ipsec key]] menu.
 +
* <var>pre-shared-key-xauth</var> - mutual PSK authentication + xauth username/password. <var>passive</var> parameter identifies server/client side
 +
* <var>rsa-signature-hybrid</var> - responder certificate authentication with initiator Xauth. <var>passive</var> parameter identifies server/client side
  
'''Read only properties'''
+
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|prop=Property
+
|arg=certificate
|desc=Description
+
|type=string
 +
|default=
 +
|desc=Name of a certificate listed in [[M:System/Certificates | certificate table]] (signing packets; the certificate must have private key). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method (auth-method=rsa-signature) is used.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=key-size
+
|arg=comment
|type=1024 {{!}} 2048 {{!}} 4096
+
|type=string
|desc=Size of this key.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Short description of the peer.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=private-key
+
|arg=compatibility-options
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=skip-peer-id-validation
|desc=Whether this is a private key.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Compatibility options to work with peers not following RFC guidelines.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=rsa
+
|arg=dh-group
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=ec2n155  {{!}} ec2n185  {{!}} modp1024  {{!}} modp1536  {{!}} modp2048  {{!}} modp3072  {{!}} modp4096  {{!}} modp6144  {{!}} modp768
|desc=Whether this is a RSA key.
+
|default=modp1024
 +
|desc=[[#Diffie-Hellman Groups | Diffie-Hellman group]] (cipher strength)
 
}}
 
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=disabled
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|default=no
 +
|desc=Whether peer is used to match remote peer's prefix.
 +
}}
  
'''Commands'''
+
{{Mr-arg-table
 
+
|arg=dpd-interval
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
|type=time {{!}} disable-dpd
|prop=Property
+
|default=2m
|desc=Description
+
|desc=Dead peer detection interval. If set to <var>disable-dpd</var>, dead peer detection will not be used.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=export-pub-key
+
|arg=dpd-maximum-failures
|type=file-name; key
+
|type=integer: 1..100
|desc=Export public key to file from one of existing private keys.  
+
|default=5
 +
|desc=Maximum count of failures until peer is considered to be dead. Applicable if DPD is enabled.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=generate-key
+
|arg=enc-algorithm
|type=key-size; name
+
|type=3des {{!}} aes-128 {{!}} aes-192 {{!}} aes-256 {{!}} blowfish {{!}} camellia-128 {{!}} camellia-192 {{!}} camellia-256 {{!}} des
|desc=Generate private key. Takes two parameters, name of newly generated key and key size 1024,2048 and 4096.
+
|default=aes-128
 +
|desc=List of encryption algorithms that will be used by the peer.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=import
+
|arg=exchange-mode
|type=file-name; name
+
|type=aggressive {{!}} base {{!}} main {{!}} main-l2tp {{!}} ike2
|desc=Import key from file.
+
|default=main
 +
|desc=Different ISAKMP phase 1 exchange modes according to RFC 2408. Do not use other modes then main unless you know what you are doing.
 +
'''main-l2tp''' mode relaxes rfc2409 section 5.4, to allow pre-shared-key authentication in main mode. <var>ike2</var> mode enables Ikev2 RFC 7296. Parameters that are ignored by Ikev2 <var>proposal-check</var>, <var>compatibility-options</var>, <var>lifebytes</var>, <var>dpd-maximum-failures</var>.
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Policy==
+
{{Mr-arg-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec policy</code></p>
+
|arg=generate-policy
 
+
|type=no {{!}} port-override {{!}} port-strict
 
+
|default=no
Policy table is used to determine whether security settings should be applied to a packet.
+
|desc=Allow this peer to establish SA for non-existing policies. Such policies are created dynamically for the lifetime of SA. Automatic policies allows, for example, to create IPsec secured [[M:Interface/L2TP | L2TP]] tunnels, or any other setup where remote peer's IP address is not known at the configuration time.
 
+
* <var>no</var> - do not generate policies
{{Warning | policy order is important starting form v6.40. Now it works similar as firewall filters where policies are executed from top to bottom (<var>priority</var> parameter is removed).}}
+
* <var>port-override</var> -- generate policies and force policy to use '''any''' port (old behavior)
 
+
* <var>port-strict</var> -- use ports from peer's proposal, which should match peer's policy
 
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
|prop=Property
 
|desc=Description
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=action
+
|arg=hash-algorithm
|type=discard {{!}} encrypt {{!}} none
+
|type=md5 {{!}} sha1 {{!}} sha256 {{!}} sha512
|default=encrypt
+
|default=sha1
|desc=Specifies what to do with packet matched by the policy.
+
|desc=Hashing algorithm. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
* <var>none</var> - pass the packet unchanged
 
* <var>discard</var> - drop the packet
 
* <var>encrypt</var> - apply transformations specified in this policy and it's SA
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=comment
+
|arg=key
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
 
|default=
 
|default=
|desc=Short description of the policy
+
|desc=Name of the key from [[#Keys | key menu]]. Applicable if auth-method=rsa-key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=disabled
+
|arg=lifebytes
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=Integer: 0..4294967295
|default=no
+
|default=0
|desc=Whether policy is used to match packets.
+
|desc=Phase 1 lifebytes is used only as administrative value which is added to proposal. Used in cases if remote peer requires specific lifebytes value to establish phase 1.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=dst-address
+
|arg=lifetime
|type=IP/IPv6 prefix
+
|type=time
|default=0.0.0.0/32
+
|default=1d
|desc=Destination address to be matched in packets.
+
|desc=Phase 1 lifetime: specifies how long the SA will be valid.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=dst-port
+
|arg=local-address
|type=integer:0..65535 {{!}} any
+
|type=IP/IPv6 Address
|default=any
+
|default=
|desc=Destination port to be matched in packets. If set to '''any''' all ports will be matched
+
|desc=Routers local address on which Phase 1 should be bounded to.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=group
+
|arg=mode-config
|type=string
+
|type=none {{!}} request-only {{!}} string
|default=default
+
|default=none
|desc=Name of the [[#Policy_Group | policy group]] to which this template is assigned.
+
|desc=Name of the mode config parameters from [[#Mode_Config | <code>mode-config</code> menu]]. When parameter is set mode-config is enabled.
 +
* initiator peer on phase1 will send mode-config request and will set assigned IP address and DNS.
 +
* responder will assign ip address if address-pool is specified, will send also DNS server addresses and split-include subnets (if defined).
 
}}
 
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-table
 +
|arg=my-id
 +
|type=auto {{!}} fqdn {{!}} user-fqdn {{!}} key-id
 +
|default=auto
 +
|desc=This parameter sets IKE ID to specified mode. It is possible to manually set two modes FQDN and USER_FQDN.
 +
* '''FQDN''' - fully qualified domain name
 +
* '''USER_FQDN''' - specifies a fully-qualified username string, for example, "user@domain.com";
 +
* '''address''' - IP address is used as ID;
 +
* '''auto''' - tries to use correct ID automatically: IP for PSK, FQDN for Cert based connections;
 +
* '''key-id''' - Use the specified key-id for the identity
 +
 +
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=ipsec-protocols
+
|arg=nat-traversal
|type=ah {{!}} esp
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=esp
+
|default=no
|desc=Specifies what combination  of Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload protocols you want to apply to matched traffic
+
|desc=Use Linux NAT-T mechanism to solve IPsec incompatibility with NAT routers inbetween IPsec peers. This can only be used with ESP protocol (AH is not supported by design, as it signs the complete packet, including IP header, which is changed by NAT, rendering AH signature invalid). The method encapsulates IPsec ESP traffic into UDP streams in order to overcome some minor issues that made ESP incompatible with NAT.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=level
+
|arg=notrack-chain
|type=require {{!}} unique {{!}} use
+
|type=string
|default=require
+
|default=
|desc=Specifies what to do if some of the SAs for this policy cannot be found:
+
|desc=Adds raw firewall rules matching ipsec policy to specified chain.  
* <var>use</var> - skip this transform, do not drop packet and do not acquire SA from IKE daemon
 
* <var>require</var> - drop packet and acquire SA
 
* <var>unique</var> - drop packet and acquire a unique SA that is only used with this particular policy. It is used in setups where multiple clients can sit behind one public IP address (clients behind NAT).
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=manual-sa
+
|arg=passive
|type=string {{!}} none
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=none
+
|default=no
|desc=Name of the [[#Manual SA|manual SA]] template
+
|desc=When passive mode is enabled will wait for remote peer to initiate IKE connection. Enabled passive mode also indicates that peer is xauth responder, and disabled passive mode - xauth initiator. When passive mode is disabled peer will try to establish not only phase1, but also phase2 automatically, if policies are configured or created during phase1.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=proposal
+
|arg=policy-template-group
|type=string
+
|type=none {{!}} string
|default=default
+
|default=
|desc=Name of the [[#Proposal settings|proposal template]] that will be sent by IKE daemon to establish SAs for this policy.
+
|desc=If generate-policy is enabled, responder checks against templates from the same [[#Policy_Groups | group]]. If none of the templates match, Phase2 SA will not be established.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=protocol
+
|arg=port
|type=all {{!}}  egp {{!}} ggp{{!}} icmp {{!}} igmp {{!}} ...
+
|type=integer:0..65535
|default=all
+
|default=500
|desc=IP packet protocol to match.
+
|desc=Communication port used (when router is initiator) to connect to remote peer in cases if remote peer uses non-default port.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=sa-dst-address
+
|arg=proposal-check
|type=ip/ipv6 address
+
|type=claim {{!}} exact {{!}} obey {{!}} strict
|default=::
+
|default=obey
|desc=SA destination IP/IPv6 address (remote peer).
+
|desc=Phase 2 lifetime check logic:
 +
* <var>claim</var> - take shortest of proposed and configured lifetimes and notify initiator about it
 +
* <var>exact</var> -  require lifetimes to be the same
 +
* <var>obey</var> -  accept whatever is sent by an initiator
 +
* <var>strict</var> -  if proposed lifetime is longer than the default then reject proposal otherwise accept proposed lifetime
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=sa-src-address
+
|arg=remote-certificate
|type=ip/ipv6 address
+
|type=string
|default=::
+
|default=
|desc=SA source IP/IPv6 address (local peer).
+
|desc=Name of a certificate  (listed in [[M:System/Certificates | certificate table]]) for authenticating the remote side (validating packets; no private key required). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method is used.
 +
If remote-certificate is not specified then received certificate from remote peer is used and checked against CA in [[Manual:System/Certificates | certificate store]]. Proper CA must be imported in certificate store.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=src-address
+
|arg=secret
|type=ip/ipv6 prefix
+
|type=string
|default=0.0.0.0/32
+
|default=
|desc=Source IP prefix
+
|desc=Secret string (in case pre-shared key authentication is used). If it starts with '0x', it is parsed as a hexadecimal value
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=src-port
+
|arg=send-initial-contact
|type=any {{!}} integer:0..65535
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|default=any
+
|default=yes
|desc=Source Port of the packet
+
|desc=Specifies whether to send "initial contact" IKE packet or wait for remote side, this packet should trigger removal of old peer SAs for current source address.
 +
Usually in road warrior setups clients are initiators and this parameter should be set to no. Initial contact is not sent if modecfg or xauth is enabled for ikev1.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=template
+
|arg=xauth-login
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=string
|default=no
+
|default=
|desc=Creates a template and assigns it to specified [[#Policy_Group | policy group]]
+
|desc=initiator (client) XAuth username
Following parameters are used by template:
 
* src-address, dst-address - Requested subnet must match in both directions(for example 0.0.0.0/0 to allow all)
 
* protocol - protocol to match, if set to all, then any protocol is accepted
 
* proposal - SA parameters used for this template
 
* level - useful when 'unique' is required in setups with multiple clients behind NAT.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-end
 
{{Mr-arg-table-end
|arg=tunnel
+
|arg=xauth-password
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=string
|default=no
+
|default=
|desc=Specifies whether to use tunnel mode
+
|desc=initiator (client) XAuth password
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
{{Note |
+
'''Read only properties'''
All packets are IPIP encapsulated in tunnel mode, and their new IP header's src-address and dst-address are set to sa-src-address and sa-dst-address values of this policy. If you do not use tunnel mode (id est you use transport mode), then only packets whose source and destination addresses are the same as sa-src-address and sa-dst-address can be processed by this policy. Transport mode can only work with packets that originate at and are destined for IPsec peers (hosts that established security associations). To encrypt traffic between networks (or a network and a host) you have to use tunnel mode.
 
}}
 
 
 
 
 
===Policy Stats===
 
 
 
Read-only parameters
 
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 865: Line 903:
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=ph2-count
+
|arg=dynamic
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Number of active phase2 sessions associated with the policy.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Whether this is a dynamically added entry by different service (e.g L2TP).
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=ph2-state
+
|arg=responder
|type=expired {{!}} no-phase2 {{!}} established
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Indication of the progress of key establishing.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Whether this peer will act as a responder only (listen to incoming requests) and not initiate a connection.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
 
|arg=priority
+
{{Note | exchange modes '''main''' and '''l2tp-main''' are treated the same, so these modes cannot be used select config between multiple peers.}}
|type=
+
 
|desc=Shows kernel priority
+
{{Note |
}}
+
IPSec phases information is erased, when /ip ipsec peer configuration is modified on the fly, however packets are being encrypted/decrypted because of installed-sa (for example remote-peers information is erased, when peer configuration is modified.}}
 +
 
 +
==Remote Peers==
 +
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec remote-peers</code></p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
This menu provides various statistics about remote peers that currently have established phase 1 connection.
  
  
Additionally you can get policy stats with command <b><code>/ip ipsec policy print stats</code></b> will show current status of the policy. Additional read-only parameters will be printed.
+
'''Read only properties'''
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 891: Line 937:
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-accepted
+
|arg=dynamic-address
|type=integer
+
|type=ip/ipv6 address
|desc=How many incoming packets were passed by the policy without an attempt to decrypt.
+
|desc=Dynamically assigned IP address by [[#Mode_configs | Mode config]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-dropped
+
|arg=last-seen
|type=integer
+
|type=time
|desc=How many incoming packets were dropped by the policy without an attempt to decrypt
+
|desc=Duration since last message received by this peer.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-transformed
+
|arg=local-address
|type=integer
+
|type=ip/ipv6 address
|desc=How many incoming packets were decrypted (ESP) and/or verified (AH) by the policy
+
|desc=Local address on the router used by this peer.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=out-accepted
+
|arg=natt-peer
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=How many outgoing packets were passed by the policy without an attempt to encrypt.
+
|desc=Whether NAT-T is used for this peer.
}}  
+
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=out-dropped
+
|arg=remote-address
|type=integer
+
|type=ip/ipv6 address
|desc=How many outgoing packets were dropped by the policy without an attempt to encrypt.
+
|desc=Remote peer's ip/ipv6 address.
}}  
+
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=out-transformed
+
|arg=responder
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=How many outgoing packets were encrypted (ESP) and/or verified (AH) by the policy.
+
|desc=Whether the connection is initiated by remote peer.
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Policy Groups==
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec policy group</code></p>
+
|arg=side
 
+
|type=initiator {{!}} responder
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
|desc=Shows which side initiated the Phase1 negotiation.
|prop=Property
 
|desc=Description
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=name
+
|arg=state
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
|default=
+
|desc=State of phase 1 negotiation with the peer. For example when phase1 and phase 2 are negotiated it will show state "established".
|desc=
+
}}
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=comment
+
|arg=uptime
|type=string
+
|type=time
|default=
+
|desc=How long peers are in established state.
|desc=
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Proposals==
 
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec proposal</code></p>
 
 
 
Proposal information that will be sent by IKE daemons to establish SAs for certain policy.
 
  
 +
'''Commands'''
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 960: Line 998:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=auth-algorithms
+
|arg=kill-connections
|type=md5{{!}}null{{!}}sha1{{!}}sha256{{!}}sha512
+
|type=
|default=sha1
+
|desc=Manually disconnects all remote peers.
|desc=Allowed algorithms for authorization. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table
+
==Mode configs==
|arg=comment
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec mode-config</code></p>
|type=string
+
 
|default=
+
 
|desc=
+
ISAKMP and IKEv2 configuration attributes are configured in this menu.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Properties'''
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=default
+
|arg=address-pool
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=none {{!}} string
 
|default=
 
|default=
|desc=Whether this is a default system entry.
+
|desc=Name of the address pool from which responder will try to assign address if mode-config is enabled.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=disabled
+
|arg=address-prefix-length
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=integer [1..32]
|default=no
+
|default=
|desc=Whether item is disabled.
+
|desc=Prefix length (netmask) of assigned address from the pool.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=enc-algorithms
+
|arg=comment
|type=null{{!}}des{{!}}3des{{!}}aes-128-cbc{{!}}aes-128-cbc{{!}}aes-128gcm{{!}}aes-192-cbc{{!}}aes-192-ctr{{!}}aes-192-gcm{{!}}aes-256-cbc{{!}}aes-256-ctr{{!}}aes-256-gcm{{!}}blowfish{{!}}camellia-128{{!}}camellia-192{{!}}camellia-256{{!}}twofish
+
|type=string
|default=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc
+
|default=
|desc=Allowed algorithms and key lengths to use for SAs.
+
|desc=
}}
 
 
 
{{Mr-arg-table
 
|arg=lifetime
 
|type=time
 
|default=30m
 
|desc=How long to use SA before throwing it out.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 1,009: Line 1,046:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=pfs-group
+
|arg=split-include
|type=ec2n155 {{!}} ec2n185 {{!}} ecp256 {{!}} ecp384 {{!}} ecp521 {{!}} modp768 {{!}} modp1024 {{!}} modp1536 {{!}} modp2048 {{!}} modp3072 {{!}} modp4096 {{!}} modp6144 {{!}} modp8192 {{!}} none
+
|type=list of IP prefix
|default=modp1024
+
|default=
|desc=Diffie-Helman group used for Perfect Forward Secrecy.
+
|desc=List of subnets in CIDR format, which to tunnel. Subnets will be sent to the peer using CISCO UNITY extension, remote peer will create specific dynamic policies.
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Installed SAs==
+
{{Mr-arg-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec installed-sa</code></p>
+
|arg=static-dns
 +
|type=list of IP
 +
|default=
 +
|desc=Manually specified DNS server's IP address to be sent to the client.
 +
}}
  
 
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
This menu provides information about installed security associations including the keys.
+
|arg=system-dns
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|default=
 +
|desc=When this option is enabled DNS addresses will be taken from <code>/ip dns</code>.
 +
}}
  
  
Line 1,030: Line 1,075:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=AH
+
|arg=default
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Whether AH protocol is used by this SA.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Whether this is a default system entry.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{ Note | Not all IKE implementations support multiple split networks provided by split-include option. }}
|arg=ESP
+
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
{{ Note | If RouterOS client is initiator, it will always send CISCO UNITY extension, and RouterOS supports only split-include from this extension.}}
|desc=Whether ESP protocol is used by this SA.
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{ Note | It is not possible to use system-dns and static-dns at the same time.}}
|arg=add-lifetime
 
|type=time/time
 
|desc=Added lifetime for the SA in format soft/hard:
 
* soft - time period after which ike will try to establish new SA;
 
* hard - time period after which SA is deleted.
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
==Proposals==
|arg=addtime
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec proposal</code></p>
|type=time
+
 
|desc=Date and time when this SA was added.
+
 
 +
Proposal information that will be sent by IKE daemons to establish SAs for certain policy.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Properties'''
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=auth-algorithm
+
|arg=auth-algorithms
|type=md5 {{!}} null {{!}} sha1 {{!}} ...
+
|type=md5{{!}}null{{!}}sha1{{!}}sha256{{!}}sha512
|desc=Currently used authentication algorithm.
+
|default=sha1
 +
|desc=Allowed algorithms for authorization. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=auth-key
+
|arg=comment
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
|desc=Used authentication key.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=current-bytes
+
|arg=disabled
|type=64-bit integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Number of bytes seen by this SA.
+
|default=no
 +
|desc=Whether item is disabled.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=dst-address
+
|arg=enc-algorithms
|type=IP
+
|type=null{{!}}des{{!}}3des{{!}}aes-128-cbc{{!}}aes-128-cbc{{!}}aes-128gcm{{!}}aes-192-cbc{{!}}aes-192-ctr{{!}}aes-192-gcm{{!}}aes-256-cbc{{!}}aes-256-ctr{{!}}aes-256-gcm{{!}}blowfish{{!}}camellia-128{{!}}camellia-192{{!}}camellia-256{{!}}twofish
|desc=Destination address of this SA.
+
|default=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc
 +
|desc=Allowed algorithms and key lengths to use for SAs.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=enc-algorithm
+
|arg=lifetime
|type=des {{!}} 3des {{!}} aes-cbc {{!}} ...
+
|type=time
|desc=Currently used encryption algorithm.
+
|default=30m
 +
|desc=How long to use SA before throwing it out.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=enc-key
+
|arg=name
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
|desc=Used encryption key.
+
|default=
 +
|desc=
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
|arg=enc-key-size
+
|arg=pfs-group
|type=number
+
|type=ec2n155 {{!}} ec2n185 {{!}} ecp256 {{!}} ecp384 {{!}} ecp521 {{!}} modp768 {{!}} modp1024 {{!}} modp1536 {{!}} modp2048 {{!}} modp3072 {{!}} modp4096 {{!}} modp6144 {{!}} modp8192 {{!}} none
|desc=Used encryption key length.
+
|default=modp1024
 +
|desc=Diffie-Helman group used for Perfect Forward Secrecy.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
 
|arg=expires-in
+
'''Read only properties'''
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
 
|desc=Time left until rekeying.
+
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=hw-aead
+
|arg=default
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
 
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Whether this SA is [[#Hardware_acceleration | hardware accelerated]].
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Whether this is a default system entry.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
==Installed SAs==
|arg=replay
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec installed-sa</code></p>
|type=integer
 
|desc=
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
|arg=spi
 
|type=string
 
|desc=Security Parameter Index identification tag
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
This menu provides information about installed security associations including the keys.
|arg=src-address
 
|type=IP
 
|desc=Source address of this SA.
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
 
|arg=state
 
|type=string
 
|desc=Shows the current state of the SA ("mature", "dying" etc)
 
}}
 
  
 
+
'''Read only properties'''
'''Commands'''
 
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 1,142: Line 1,180:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=flush
+
|arg=AH
|type=
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Manually removes all installed security associations.
+
|desc=Whether AH protocol is used by this SA.
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Remote Peers==
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec remote-peers</code></p>
+
|arg=ESP
 
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
 
+
|desc=Whether ESP protocol is used by this SA.
This menu provides various statistics about remote peers that currently have established phase 1 connection.
 
 
 
 
 
'''Read only properties'''
 
 
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
|prop=Property
 
|desc=Description
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=dynamic-address
+
|arg=add-lifetime
|type=ip/ipv6 address
+
|type=time/time
|desc=Dynamically assigned IP address by [[#Mode_configs | Mode config]]
+
|desc=Added lifetime for the SA in format soft/hard:
 +
* soft - time period after which ike will try to establish new SA;
 +
* hard - time period after which SA is deleted.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=last-seen
+
|arg=addtime
 
|type=time
 
|type=time
|desc=Duration since last message received by this peer.
+
|desc=Date and time when this SA was added.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=local-address
+
|arg=auth-algorithm
|type=ip/ipv6 address
+
|type=md5 {{!}} null {{!}} sha1 {{!}} ...
|desc=Local address on the router used by this peer.
+
|desc=Currently used authentication algorithm.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=natt-peer
+
|arg=auth-key
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=string
|desc=Whether NAT-T is used for this peer.
+
|desc=Used authentication key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=remote-address
+
|arg=current-bytes
|type=ip/ipv6 address
+
|type=64-bit integer
|desc=Remote peer's ip/ipv6 address.
+
|desc=Number of bytes seen by this SA.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=responder
+
|arg=dst-address
|type=yes {{!}} no
+
|type=IP
|desc=Whether the connection is initiated by remote peer.
+
|desc=Destination address of this SA.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=side
+
|arg=enc-algorithm
|type=initiator {{!}} responder
+
|type=des {{!}} 3des {{!}} aes-cbc {{!}} ...
|desc=Shows which side initiated the Phase1 negotiation.
+
|desc=Currently used encryption algorithm.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=state
+
|arg=enc-key
 
|type=string
 
|type=string
|desc=State of phase 1 negotiation with the peer. For example when phase1 and phase 2 are negotiated it will show state "established".
+
|desc=Used encryption key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=uptime
+
|arg=enc-key-size
|type=time
+
|type=number
|desc=How long peers are in established state.
+
|desc=Used encryption key length.
 
}}
 
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=expires-in
 +
|type=yes {{!}} no
 +
|desc=Time left until rekeying.
 +
}}
  
'''Commands'''
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
+
|arg=hw-aead
{{Mr-arg-table-h
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|prop=Property
+
|desc=Whether this SA is [[#Hardware_acceleration | hardware accelerated]].
|desc=Description
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=kill-connections
+
|arg=replay
|type=
+
|type=integer
|desc=Manually disconnects all remote peers.
+
|desc=Size of replay window in bytes.
 
}}
 
}}
  
==Statistics==
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec statistics</code></p>
+
|arg=spi
 +
|type=string
 +
|desc=Security Parameter Index identification tag
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 +
|arg=src-address
 +
|type=IP
 +
|desc=Source address of this SA.
 +
}}
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
 +
|arg=state
 +
|type=string
 +
|desc=Shows the current state of the SA ("mature", "dying" etc)
 +
}}
  
This menu shows various ipsec statistics
+
 
 +
'''Commands'''
  
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 
{{Mr-arg-table-h
Line 1,241: Line 1,292:
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=in-errors
+
|arg=flush
|type=integer
+
|type=
|desc=All inbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
+
|desc=Manually removes all installed security associations.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
==Keys==
|arg=in-buffer-errors
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec key</code></p>
|type=integer
+
 
|desc=No free buffer.
 
}}
 
  
 +
This menu lists all imported public andprivate keys, that can be used for peer authentication. Menu has several commands to work with keys.
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
|arg=in-header-errors
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=Header error
 
}}
 
  
 +
'''Properties'''
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-h
|arg=in-no-states
+
|prop=Property
|type=integer
+
|desc=Description
|desc=No state is found i.e. Either inbound SPI, address, or IPsec protocol at SA is wrong
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
|arg=name
|arg=in-state-protocol-errors
+
|type=string
|type=integer
+
|default=
|desc=Transformation protocol specific error, for example SA key is wrong or hardware accelerator is unable to handle amount of packets.
+
|desc=
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
'''Read only properties'''
|arg=in-state-mode-errors
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=Transformation mode specific error
 
}}
 
  
 +
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 +
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-state-sequence-errors
+
|arg=key-size
|type=integer
+
|type=1024 {{!}} 2048 {{!}} 4096
|desc=Sequence number is out of window
+
|desc=Size of this key.
 
}}
 
}}
 
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-state-expired
+
|arg=private-key
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=State is expired
+
|desc=Whether this is a private key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=in-state-mismatches
+
|arg=rsa
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=State has mismatched option, for example UDP encapsulation type is mismatched.  
+
|desc=Whether this is a RSA key.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
 
|arg=in-state-invalid
+
'''Commands'''
|type=integer
+
 
|desc=State is invalid
+
{{Mr-arg-table-h
 +
|prop=Property
 +
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-template-mismatches
+
|arg=export-pub-key
|type=integer
+
|type=file-name; key
|desc=No matching template for states, e.g. Inbound SAs are correct but SP rule is wrong. Possible cause is mismatched sa-source or sa-destination address.
+
|desc=Export public key to file from one of existing private keys.  
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
|arg=in-no-policies
+
|arg=generate-key
|type=integer
+
|type=key-size; name
|desc=No policy is found for states, e.g. Inbound SAs are correct but no SP is found
+
|desc=Generate private key. Takes two parameters, name of newly generated key and key size 1024,2048 and 4096.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
|arg=in-policy-blocked
+
|arg=import
|type=integer
+
|type=file-name; name
|desc=Policy discards
+
|desc=Import key from file.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
==Users==
|arg=in-policy-errors
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec user</code></p>
|type=integer
 
|desc=Policy errors
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
|arg=out-errors
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=All outbound errors that are not matched by other counters
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
The menu consists of list of allowed XAuth users.
|arg=out-bundle-errors
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=Bundle generation error
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
 
|arg=out-bundle-check-errors
+
{{Mr-arg-table-h
|type=integer
+
|prop=Property
|desc=Bundle check error
+
|desc=Description
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=out-no-states
+
|arg=address
|type=integer
+
|type=IP
|desc=No state is found
+
|default=
 +
|desc=IP address assigned to the client. If not set dynamic address is used allocated from the address-pool defined in [[#Mode_config | Mode config]] menu.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table
|arg=out-state-protocol-errors
+
|arg=name
|type=integer
+
|type=string
|desc=Transformation protocol specific error
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Username.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
|arg=out-state-mode-errors
+
|arg=password
|type=integer
+
|type=string
|desc=Transformation mode specific error
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Password.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
===Settings===
|arg=out-state-sequence-errors
+
<p id="shbox"><b>Sub-menu:</b> <code>/ip ipsec user settings</code></p>
|type=integer
 
|desc=Sequence errors, for example Sequence number overflow
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
 
|arg=out-state-expired
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=State is expired
 
}}
 
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-h
|arg=out-policy-blocked
+
|prop=Property
|type=integer
+
|desc=Description
|desc=Policy discards
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table
+
{{Mr-arg-table-end
|arg=out-policy-dead
+
|arg=xauth-use-radius
|type=integer
+
|type=yes {{!}} no
|desc=Policy is dead
+
|default=
 +
|desc=Whether to use [[Manual:RADIUS_Client | Radius client]] for XAuth users or not.
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Mr-arg-ro-table-end
+
{{ Note | Radius accounting currently is not supported by IPsec, only authentication. }}
|arg=out-policy-errors
 
|type=integer
 
|desc=Policy error
 
}}
 
  
==Application Examples==
+
==Application Guides==
  
===Simple Mutual PSK XAuth Config===
+
===Simple mutual PSK XAuth configuration===
  
Server side config:
+
Server side configuration:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 1,411: Line 1,436:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Client side config:
+
Client side configuration:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 1,422: Line 1,447:
 
{{Note | On server side it is mandatory to set <var>passive</var> to '''yes''' when XAuth is used. }}
 
{{Note | On server side it is mandatory to set <var>passive</var> to '''yes''' when XAuth is used. }}
  
 +
===Allow only IPsec encapsulated traffic===
  
===Road Warrior setup with Mode Conf===
+
There are some scenarios where for security reasons you would like to drop access from/to specific networks if incoming/outgoing packets are not encrypted. For example, if we have L2TP/IPsec setup we would want to drop non encrypted L2TP connection attempts.
  
 +
There are several ways how to achieve this:
 +
* Using IPsec policy matcher in firewall;
 +
* Using generic IPsec policy with <var>action</var> set to '''drop''' and lower priority (can be used in Road Warrior setups where dynamic policies are generated);
 +
* By setting DSCP or priority in mangle and matching the same values in firewall after decapsulation.
  
Consider setup where worker need to access other co-workers (workstations) and local office server remotely.
+
====IPsec policy matcher====
Office has two subnets:
 
* 192.168.55.0/24 for workstations
 
* 192.168.66.0/24 network that must not be reachable by RoadWarrior clients
 
* 10.5.8.0/24 for servers
 
  
And access to those networks should be secure.
+
Lets set up IPsec policy matcher to accept all packets that matched any of IPsec policies and drop the rest:
  
[[file:ipsec-road-warrior.png]]
+
<pre>
 +
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
 +
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec
 +
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes
 +
</pre>
  
Typically in RoadWarrior setups as this it is impossible to know from which address user will connect, so we need to set up <var>generate-policy</var> parameter on the server side. However this leads to other problems, client can generate any policy and access any network in the office. Even set 0.0.0.0/0 and deny internet access to office workers.
+
IPsec policy matcher takes two parameters '''direction,policy'''. We used incoming direction and IPsec policy. IPsec policy option allows us to inspect packets after decapsulation, so for example if we want to allow only gre encapsulated packet from specific source address and drop the rest we could set up following rules:
  
'''Mode Conf''', '''policy group''' and '''policy templates''' will allow us to overcome these problems.
+
<pre>
 +
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
 +
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=gre src=address=192.168.33.1
 +
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes
 +
</pre>
  
 +
For L2TP rule set would be:
  
====IPsec Server Config====
 
 
At first we need a pool from which RoadWarrior will will get an address. Typically in office you set up DHCP server for local workstations, the same DHCP pool can be used.
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip pool
+
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
add name=ipsec-RW ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254
+
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=udp dst-port=1701
 +
add action=drop chain=input protocol=udp dst-port=1701 comment="drop l2tp" in-interface=WAN log=yes
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Next we need to set up what settings to send to the client using Mode Conf. 
+
====Using generic IPsec policy====
<pre>
+
 
/ip ipsec mode-config
+
The trick of this method is to add default policy with action drop. Lets assume we are running L2TP/IPsec server on public 1.1.1.1 address and we want to drop all non encrypted L2TP:
add address-pool=ipsec-RW name=RW-cfg split-include=\
 
    10.5.8.0/24,192.168.55.0/24
 
</pre>
 
As you can see we specified from which pool to give out address and two allowed subnets.
 
 
 
  
Now to allow only specific source/destination address in generated policies we will use policy group and create policy templates:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec policy group
 
add name=RoadWarrior
 
 
 
/ip ipsec policy
 
/ip ipsec policy
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=10.5.8.0/24 \
+
add src-address=1.1.1.1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 sa-src-address=1.1.1.1 \
    template=yes
+
  protocol=udp src-port=1701 tunnel=yes action=discard
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=192.168.55.0/24 \
 
    template=yes
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
Now router will drop any L2TP unencrypted incoming traffic, but after successful L2TP/IPsec connection dynamic policy is created with higher priority than it is on default static rule and packets matching that dynamic rule can be forwarded.
 +
 +
{{ Note | Policy order is important! For this to work, make sure the static drop policy is below the dynamic policies. Move it below the policy template if necessary. }}
  
Now we just add xauth users and peer with enabled Mode Conf and policy group.
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec user
+
[admin@rack2_10g1] /ip ipsec policy> print
add name=user1 password=123
+
Flags: T - template, X - disabled, D - dynamic, I - inactive, * - default
add name=user2 password=234
+
0 T * group=default src-address=::/0 dst-address=::/0 protocol=all
 +
      proposal=default template=yes
  
/ip ipsec peer
+
1  D  src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=10.5.130.71/32
add auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict mode-config=RW-cfg \
+
      dst-port=any protocol=udp action=encrypt level=require
    policy-template-group=RoadWarrior secret=123 passive=yes
+
      ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=no sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
 +
      sa-dst-address=10.5.130.71
 +
 
 +
2    src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0
 +
      dst-port=any protocol=udp action=discard level=unique
 +
      ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
 +
      sa-dst-address=0.0.0.0 proposal=default manual-sa=none
  
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== Apple iOS (iPhone/iPad) Client ====
+
===Manually specifying local-address parameter under Peer configuration===
 +
 
 +
====Using different routing table====
  
For iOS devices to be able to connect, '''proposal''' changes are needed:
+
IPsec, as any other service in RouterOS, uses main routing table regardless what <var>local-address</var> parameter is used for Peer configuration. It is necessary to apply routing marks to both IKE and IPSec traffic.
  
* does not work with 3des encryption algorithm, '''aes-128/256''' works
+
Consider the following example. There are two default routes - one in main routing table and another in routing table "backup". It is necessary to use the backup link for IPsec site to site tunnel.
* auth algorithm must be '''sha1'''
 
* PFS group must be '''none'''
 
* lifetime must be '''8 hours'''
 
  
Example of valid proposal configuration for iOS devices:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec proposal
+
[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print detail
set default enc-algorithms=aes-128-cbc,aes-256-cbc lifetime=8h \
+
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit
    pfs-group=none
+
0 A S  dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.155.107.1 gateway-status=10.155.107.1 reachable via  ether1 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10 routing-mark=backup
</pre>
+
 
 +
1 A S  dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=172.22.2.115 gateway-status=172.22.2.115 reachable via  ether2 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10
 +
 
 +
2 ADC  dst-address=10.155.107.0/25 pref-src=10.155.107.8 gateway=ether1 gateway-status=ether1 reachable distance=0 scope=10
 +
 
 +
3 ADC  dst-address=172.22.2.0/24 pref-src=172.22.2.114 gateway=ether2 gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10
  
{{ Note | Iphone does not work with split-include 0.0.0.0/0. If you set 0.0.0.0/0 for older clients traffic will not be sent over the tunnel, for newer ios clients tunnel will not be established.}}
+
4 ADC  dst-address=192.168.1.0/24 pref-src=192.168.1.1 gateway=bridge-local gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10
  
==== Android Client Notes ====
+
[admin@pair_r1] > /ip firewall nat print 
 +
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic
 +
0    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix=""
  
Android devices are trying to add policy with destination 0.0.0.0/0, so you have to make sure that correct policy template is added.
+
1    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether2 log=no log-prefix=""
  
In our case we need to add:
 
<pre>
 
/ip ipsec policy
 
add group=RoadWarrior dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 src-address=0.0.0.0/0 template=yes
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
====RouterOS Client Config====
+
IPsec peer and policy configurations are created using the backup link's source address, as well as NAT bypass rule for IPsec tunnel traffic.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
/ip ipsec peer
 
/ip ipsec peer
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict secret=123 \
+
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=10.155.107.8 secret=test
     xauth-login=user1 xauth-password=123 mode-config=request-only
+
/ip ipsec policy
 +
add sa-src-address=10.155.107.8 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
 +
/ip firewall nat
 +
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Currently, we see "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors in the log. It is because IPsec tries to reach the remote peer using the main routing table with incorrect source address. It is necessary to mark UDP/500, UDP/4500 and ipsec-esp packets using Mangle.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip firewall mangle
 +
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 dst-port=500,4500 \
 +
new-connection-mark=ipsec passthrough=yes protocol=udp
 +
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 new-connection-mark=ipsec \
 +
passthrough=yes protocol=ipsec-esp
 +
add action=mark-routing chain=output connection-mark=ipsec new-routing-mark=backup passthrough=no
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
====Using same routing table with multiple IP addresses====
 +
 
 +
Consider the following example. There are multiple IP addresses from the same subnet on the public interface. Masquerade rule is configured on out-interface. It is necessary to use one of the IP addresses explicitly.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
[admin@pair_r1] > /ip address print
 +
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic
 +
#  ADDRESS            NETWORK        INTERFACE
 +
0  192.168.1.1/24    192.168.1.0    bridge-local
 +
1  172.22.2.1/24      172.22.2.0      ether1
 +
2  172.22.2.2/24      172.22.2.0      ether1
 +
3  172.22.2.3/24      172.22.2.0      ether1
 +
 
 +
[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print
 +
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit
 +
#      DST-ADDRESS        PREF-SRC        GATEWAY            DISTANCE
 +
1 A S  0.0.0.0/0                          172.22.2.115              1
 +
3 ADC  172.22.2.0/24     172.22.2.1      ether1                    0
 +
4 ADC  192.168.1.0/24    192.168.1.1    bridge-local              0
 +
 
 +
[admin@pair_r1] /ip firewall nat> print
 +
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic
 +
0    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix=""
 +
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
====Shrew Client Config====
+
IPsec peer and policy configuration is created using one of the public IP addresses.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
n:version:2
+
/ip ipsec peer
n:network-ike-port:500
+
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=172.22.2.3 secret=test
n:network-mtu-size:1380
+
/ip ipsec policy
n:network-natt-port:4500
+
add sa-src-address=172.22.2.3 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
n:network-natt-rate:15
+
/ip firewall nat
n:network-frag-size:540
+
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0
n:network-dpd-enable:0
 
n:client-banner-enable:0
 
n:network-notify-enable:0
 
n:client-wins-used:0
 
n:client-wins-auto:1
 
n:client-dns-used:1
 
n:client-dns-auto:0
 
n:client-splitdns-used:1
 
n:client-splitdns-auto:0
 
n:phase1-dhgroup:2
 
n:phase1-life-secs:86400
 
n:phase1-life-kbytes:0
 
n:vendor-chkpt-enable:0
 
n:phase2-life-secs:300
 
n:phase2-life-kbytes:0
 
n:policy-nailed:1
 
n:policy-list-auto:1
 
n:client-addr-auto:1
 
s:network-host:2.2.2.2
 
s:client-auto-mode:pull
 
s:client-iface:virtual
 
s:network-natt-mode:disable
 
s:network-frag-mode:disable
 
s:auth-method:mutual-psk-xauth
 
s:ident-client-type:address
 
s:ident-server-type:address
 
b:auth-mutual-psk:MTIz
 
s:phase1-exchange:main
 
s:phase1-cipher:3des
 
s:phase1-hash:md5
 
s:phase2-transform:esp-3des
 
s:phase2-hmac:sha1
 
s:ipcomp-transform:disabled
 
n:phase2-pfsgroup:2
 
s:policy-level:require
 
 
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
===Road Warrior setup using IKEv2 with RSA authentication===
+
Currently the phase 1 connection uses a different source address than we specified and "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors are shown in the logs. This is because masquerade is changing the source address of the connection to match pref-src address of the connected route. Solution is to exclude connections from the public IP address from being masqueraded.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip firewall nat
 +
add action=accept chain=srcnat protocol=udp src-port=500,4500 place-before=0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==Application Examples==
  
This example explains how to establish a secure IPsec connection between a device connected to the Internet (RoadWarrior client) and a device running RouterOS acting as a server.
+
===Site to Site IPsec tunnel===
  
[[file:ipsec-road-warrior.png]]
+
Consider setup as illustrated below. Two remote office routers are connected to internet and office workstations are behind NAT. Each office has its own local subnet, 10.1.202.0/24 for Office1 and 10.1.101.0/24 for Office2. Both remote offices needs secure tunnel to local networks behind routers.
  
 +
[[file:site-to-site-ipsec-example.png]]
  
====RouterOS server configuration====
+
====Site 1 configuration====
  
Before configuring IPsec, it is required to set up certificates. It is possible to use a separate Certificate Authority for certificate management, however in this example, self signed certificates are generated in RouterOS [[Manual:System/Certificates | System/Certificates]] menu. Some certificate requirements should be met to connect various devices to the server:
+
Start off by configuring IPsec peer. It is enough to configure <var>address</var>, <var>auth-method</var> and <var>secret</var> parameters and leaving everything else as default. However, it is possible to set additional [[#Peers | Peer]] properties as long as they are identical between both sites.
* Common name should contain IP or DNS name of the server;
 
* SAN (subject alternative name) should have IP or DNS of the server;
 
* EKU (extended key usage) tls-server and tls-client are required.
 
  
Considering all requirements above, generate CA and server certificates:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/certificate
+
/ip ipsec peer
add common-name=ca name=ca
+
add address=192.168.80.1/32 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"
sign ca ca-crl-host=2.2.2.2
 
add common-name=2.2.2.2 subject-alt-name=IP:2.2.2.2 key-usage=tls-server name=server1
 
sign server1 ca=ca
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
For the next steps, it is important that proposed authentication and encryption algorithms match on both routers. In this example we can use predefined "default" proposal. To verify [[#Proposals | Proposal]] settings:
  
Now that valid certificates are created on the router, IPsec can be configured. [[#Mode_Config | Mode config]] is used for address distribution from IP pool and DNS configuration. Since that the policy template must be adjusted to allow only specific network policies, it is advised to create a separate policy group and template. For compatibility, a new proposal is created with PFS group set to none.
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip pool add name=rw-pool ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254
+
[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec proposal print
/ip ipsec proposal
+
Flags: X - disabled, * - default
add name=rw-proposal pfs-group=none
+
0  * name="default" auth-algorithms=sha1
/ip ipsec mode-conf
+
      enc-algorithms=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc lifetime=30m
add name=rw-conf system-dns=yes address-pool=rw-pool address-prefix=32
+
      pfs-group=modp1024
/ip ipsec policy
 
group add name=rw-policies
 
add template=yes dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=rw-policies proposal=rw-proposal
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
Lastly, create a new IPsec peer configuration.
+
 
 +
It is possible to create a new proposal entry for our tunnel and specify it when creating policy, however in this example, the default proposal is used:
 +
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec peer
+
/ip ipsec policy
add auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=server1 generate-policy=port-strict \
+
add src-address=10.1.202.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-port=any \
  mode-config=rw-conf passive=yes remote-certificate=none exchange-mode=ike2 \
+
sa-src-address=192.168.90.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.80.1 \
  policy-template-group=rw-policies
+
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
{{Note | Windows uses point-to-point links so specifying any prefix other than 32 in Mode config settings will do nothing}}
+
====Site 2 configuration====
  
{{Note | Currently RouterOS does not support any of EAP authentication methods}}
+
Office 2 configuration is almost identical as Office 1 with proper IP address configuration.
  
{{Note | Most commonly available IKEv2 client software does not support Mode config split-network option}}
+
<pre>
 
+
/ip ipsec peer
==== RouterOS client configuration ====
+
add address=192.168.90.1/32 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"
 +
</pre>
  
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.
+
Continue with verifying that proposal parameters are matching between the sites:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/certificate
+
[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec proposal print
add common-name=RouterOS_client name=RouterOS_client key-usage=tls-client
+
Flags: X - disabled, * - default
sign RouterOS_client ca=ca
+
0  * name="default" auth-algorithms=sha1
export-certificate RouterOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
+
      enc-algorithms=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc lifetime=30m
 +
      pfs-group=modp1024
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A file named <b>cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Transfer the file to the RouterOS client device and import it.
+
When it is done, create an IPsec policy:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/certificate import file-name=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12 passphrase=1234567890
+
/ip ipsec policy
 +
add src-address=10.1.101.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-port=any \
 +
sa-src-address=192.168.80.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.90.1 \
 +
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
There should now be the self-signed CA certificate and the client certificate in Certificate menu. Usually the client certificate is imported first, but lets double check which is it.
+
At this point, the tunnel should be established and two Security Associations should be created on both routers:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/put [/certificate get [find common-name=RouterOS_client] name] 
+
/ip ipsec
 +
remote-peers print
 +
installed-sa print
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
<b>cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0</b> is the client certificate. Now we can create the peer configuration.
+
====NAT and Fasttrack Bypass====
 +
 
 +
At this point if you try to send traffic over the IPsec tunnel, it will not work, packets will be lost. This is because both routers have NAT rules (masquerade) that is changing source address before packet is encrypted. Router is unable to encrypt the packet, because source address do not match address specified in policy configuration. For more information see [[M:Packet_Flow#IPsec_encryption|IPsec packet flow example]].
 +
 
 +
To fix this we need to set up NAT bypass rule.
 +
 
 +
Office 1 router:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec peer
+
/ip firewall nat
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0 mode-config=request-only exchange-mode=ike2 generate-policy=port-strict
+
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
 +
src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Verify that the connection is successfully established.
+
Office 2 router:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec
+
/ip firewall nat
remote-peers print
+
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
installed-sa print
+
src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== Windows client configuration ====
+
{{Note | If you previously tried to establish an IP connection before NAT bypass rule was added, you have to clear connection table from existing connection or restart both routers. }}
  
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.
+
It is very important that bypass rule is placed at the top of all other NAT rules.
  
 +
Another issue is if you have Fasttrack enabled, packet bypasses IPsec policies. So we need to add accept rule before Fasttrack
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/certificate
+
/ip firewall filter
add common-name=Windows_client name=Windows_client key-usage=tls-client
+
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
sign Windows_client ca=ca
+
src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 connection-state=established,related
export-certificate Windows_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
+
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
 +
src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 connection-state=established,related
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A file named <b>cert_export_Windows_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the Windows computer. Install the certificate by following the instructions. Make sure you select Local Machine store location.
+
However this can add significant load to CPU if there is a fair amount of tunnels and significant traffic on each tunnel.
 +
 
 +
Solution is to use RAW firewall tables to bypass connection tracking, that way eliminating need of filter rules listed above and reducing load on CPU by approximately 30%.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip firewall raw
 +
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
 +
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24
 +
</pre>
  
[[File:Ike2v2_cert_win.png | 1300px]]
+
===Road Warrior setup with Mode Conf===
  
You can now proceed to Network and Internet settings -> VPN and add a new configuration. Fill in the Connection name, Server name or address parameters. Select IKEv2 under VPN type. When it is done, it is necessary to select "Use machine certificates". This can be done in Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Properties menu for the VPN connection. The setting is located under Security tab.
 
  
[[File:Ike2v2_conf_win.png | 1300px]]
+
Consider setup where worker need to access other co-workers (workstations) and local office server remotely.
 +
Office has two subnets:
 +
* 192.168.55.0/24 for workstations
 +
* 192.168.66.0/24 network that must not be reachable by RoadWarrior clients
 +
* 10.5.8.0/24 for servers
  
Currently Windows 10 is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
+
And access to those networks should be secure.
  
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
[[file:ipsec-road-warrior.png]]
<tr>
 
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-192-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-192-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-128-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
  
 +
Typically in RoadWarrior setups as this it is impossible to know from which address user will connect, so we need to set up <var>generate-policy</var> parameter on the server side. However this leads to other problems, client can generate any policy and access any network in the office. Even set 0.0.0.0/0 and deny internet access to office workers.
  
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
'''Mode Conf''', '''policy group''' and '''policy templates''' will allow us to overcome these problems.
<tr>
 
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>none</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
  
  
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
+
====IPsec Server Config====
  
==== Android Client Notes ====
+
At first we need a pool from which RoadWarrior will will get an address. Typically in office you set up DHCP server for local workstations, the same DHCP pool can be used.
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip pool
 +
add name=ipsec-RW ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254
 +
</pre>
  
Native Android client does not support ikev2 at the moment. StrongSwan client from Play Store can be used to connect to ikev2 server.
+
Next we need to set up what settings to send to the client using Mode Conf.
StrongSwan client the same as windows accept certificates and keys in pkcs12 format. So external tool is needed to convert exported .crt and .key files to .pfx and then import .pfx file.
+
<pre>
 +
/ip ipsec mode-config
 +
add address-pool=ipsec-RW name=RW-cfg split-include=\
 +
    10.5.8.0/24,192.168.55.0/24
 +
</pre>
 +
As you can see we specified from which pool to give out address and two allowed subnets.
  
After its imported you will see CA and Client cert in user certificates:
 
  
[[file:android-cert-import.png | 300px]]
+
Now to allow only specific source/destination address in generated policies we will use policy group and create policy templates:
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip ipsec policy group
 +
add name=RoadWarrior
  
 +
/ip ipsec policy
 +
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=10.5.8.0/24 \
 +
    template=yes
 +
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=192.168.55.0/24 \
 +
    template=yes
 +
</pre>
  
Now you can pick them in profile configuration.
 
  
[[file:android-cl-cert.png | 300px]]
+
Now we just add xauth users and peer with enabled Mode Conf and policy group.
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip ipsec user
 +
add name=user1 password=123
 +
add name=user2 password=234
  
Ca certificate is selected automatically as shown in screenshot below, but if for some reason you need to specify exact CA certificate, then unselect "Select automatically" and pick imported CA from the list.
+
/ip ipsec peer
 +
add auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict mode-config=RW-cfg \
 +
    policy-template-group=RoadWarrior secret=123 passive=yes
  
[[file:android-ca-cert.png | 300px]]
+
</pre>
  
When connecting Android StrongSwan clients, make sure that on RouterOS proposal settings DH group is disabled, otherwise phase2 will fail.
+
==== Apple iOS (iPhone/iPad) Client ====
  
==== macOS client configuration ====
+
For iOS devices to be able to connect, '''proposal''' changes are needed:
  
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.
+
* does not work with 3des encryption algorithm, '''aes-128/256''' works
 +
* auth algorithm must be '''sha1'''
 +
* PFS group must be '''none'''
 +
* lifetime must be '''8 hours'''
  
 +
Example of valid proposal configuration for iOS devices:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/certificate
+
/ip ipsec proposal
add common-name=macOS_client name=macOS_client key-usage=tls-client
+
set default enc-algorithms=aes-128-cbc,aes-256-cbc lifetime=8h \
sign macOS_client ca=ca
+
    pfs-group=none
export-certificate macOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
A file named <b>cert_export_macOS_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the macOS computer and install the certificate in "System" keychain. It is necessary to mark the CA certificate as trusted manually since it is self-signed. Locate the certificate macOS Keychain Access app under System tab and mark it as Always Trust.
+
{{ Note | Iphone does not work with split-include 0.0.0.0/0. If you set 0.0.0.0/0 for older clients traffic will not be sent over the tunnel, for newer ios clients tunnel will not be established.}}
  
[[File:Ikev2_cert_macos.png | 900px]]
+
==== Android Client Notes ====
  
You can now proceed to System Preferences -> Network and add a new configuration by clicking the + button. Select Interface: VPN, VPN Type: IKEv2 and name your connection. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank. Under Authentication Settings select None and choose the client certificate. You can now test the connectivity.
+
Android devices are trying to add policy with destination 0.0.0.0/0, so you have to make sure that correct policy template is added.
  
[[File:Ikev2_conf_macos.png | 900px]]
+
In our case we need to add:
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip ipsec policy
 +
add group=RoadWarrior dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 src-address=0.0.0.0/0 template=yes
 +
</pre>
  
Currently macOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
+
====RouterOS Client Config====
  
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
<pre>
<tr>
+
/ip ipsec peer
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
+
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict secret=123 \
</tr>
+
    xauth-login=user1 xauth-password=123 mode-config=request-only
<tr>
+
</pre>
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp2048</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>ecp256</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1536</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
  
 +
====Shrew Client Config====
  
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
<pre>
<tr>
+
n:version:2
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
+
n:network-ike-port:500
</tr>
+
n:network-mtu-size:1380
<tr>
+
n:network-natt-port:4500
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
+
n:network-natt-rate:15
</tr>
+
n:network-frag-size:540
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
+
n:network-dpd-enable:0
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
+
n:client-banner-enable:0
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
+
n:network-notify-enable:0
</table>
+
n:client-wins-used:0
 
+
n:client-wins-auto:1
 
+
n:client-dns-used:1
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
+
n:client-dns-auto:0
 
+
n:client-splitdns-used:1
==== iOS client configuration ====
+
n:client-splitdns-auto:0
 +
n:phase1-dhgroup:2
 +
n:phase1-life-secs:86400
 +
n:phase1-life-kbytes:0
 +
n:vendor-chkpt-enable:0
 +
n:phase2-life-secs:300
 +
n:phase2-life-kbytes:0
 +
n:policy-nailed:1
 +
n:policy-list-auto:1
 +
n:client-addr-auto:1
 +
s:network-host:2.2.2.2
 +
s:client-auto-mode:pull
 +
s:client-iface:virtual
 +
s:network-natt-mode:disable
 +
s:network-frag-mode:disable
 +
s:auth-method:mutual-psk-xauth
 +
s:ident-client-type:address
 +
s:ident-server-type:address
 +
b:auth-mutual-psk:MTIz
 +
s:phase1-exchange:main
 +
s:phase1-cipher:3des
 +
s:phase1-hash:md5
 +
s:phase2-transform:esp-3des
 +
s:phase2-hmac:sha1
 +
s:ipcomp-transform:disabled
 +
n:phase2-pfsgroup:2
 +
s:policy-level:require
  
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA.
 
 
<pre>
 
/certificate
 
add common-name=iOS_client name=iOS_client key-usage=tls-client
 
sign iOS_client ca=ca
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
When installing certificates, check which formats iOS supports, client certificate can not be imported from CRT and KEY files, but you can use PKCS12 format. Typically PKCS12 bundle contains also CA certificate, but iOS does not install this CA, so self-signed CA certificate must be installed separately using PEM format.
+
===Road Warrior setup using IKEv2 with RSA authentication===
  
<pre>
+
This example explains how to establish a secure IPsec connection between a device connected to the Internet (RoadWarrior client) and a device running RouterOS acting as a server.
/certificate
 
export-certificate ca type=pem
 
export-certificate iOS_client type=pkcs12 export-passphrase=1234567890
 
</pre>
 
  
Two files are now located in the routers Files section: <b>cert_export_ca.crt</b> and <b>cert_export_iOS_client.p12</b>. Download and open these files on the iOS device and install both certificates by following the instructions. It is necessary to mark the self-signed CA certificate as trusted on the iOS device. This can be done in Settings -> General -> About -> Certificate Trust Settings menu. When it is done, check whether both certificates are marked as "verified" under Settings -> General -> Profiles menu.
+
[[file:ipsec-road-warrior.png]]
  
[[File:Ikev2_cert_ios.PNG | 900px]]
 
  
 +
====RouterOS server configuration====
  
You can now proceed to Settings -> General -> VPN menu and add a new configuration. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank.
+
Before configuring IPsec, it is required to set up certificates. It is possible to use a separate Certificate Authority for certificate management, however in this example, self signed certificates are generated in RouterOS [[Manual:System/Certificates | System/Certificates]] menu. Some certificate requirements should be met to connect various devices to the server:
 +
* Common name should contain IP or DNS name of the server;
 +
* SAN (subject alternative name) should have IP or DNS of the server;
 +
* EKU (extended key usage) tls-server and tls-client are required.
  
[[File:Ikev2_conf_ios.PNG | 450px]]
+
Considering all requirements above, generate CA and server certificates:
 +
<pre>
 +
/certificate
 +
add common-name=ca name=ca
 +
sign ca ca-crl-host=2.2.2.2
 +
add common-name=2.2.2.2 subject-alt-name=IP:2.2.2.2 key-usage=tls-server name=server1
 +
sign server1 ca=ca
 +
</pre>
  
  
Currently iOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
+
Now that valid certificates are created on the router, IPsec can be configured. [[#Mode_Config | Mode config]] is used for address distribution from IP pool and DNS configuration. Since that the policy template must be adjusted to allow only specific network policies, it is advised to create a separate policy group and template. For compatibility, a new proposal is created with PFS group set to none.
 
+
<pre>
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
/ip pool add name=rw-pool ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254
<tr>
+
/ip ipsec proposal
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
+
add name=rw-proposal pfs-group=none
</tr>
+
/ip ipsec mode-conf
<tr>
+
add name=rw-conf system-dns=yes address-pool=rw-pool address-prefix=32
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
+
/ip ipsec policy
</tr>
+
group add name=rw-policies
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp2048</td></tr>
+
add template=yes dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=rw-policies proposal=rw-proposal
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>ecp256</td></tr>
+
</pre>
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1536</td></tr>
+
Lastly, create a new IPsec peer configuration.
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
+
<pre>
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
+
/ip ipsec peer
</table>
+
add auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=server1 generate-policy=port-strict \
 +
  mode-config=rw-conf passive=yes remote-certificate=none exchange-mode=ike2 \
 +
  policy-template-group=rw-policies
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
{{Note | Windows uses point-to-point links so specifying any prefix other than 32 in Mode config settings will do nothing}}
  
 +
{{Note | Currently RouterOS does not support any of EAP authentication methods}}
  
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
+
{{Note | Most commonly available IKEv2 client software does not support Mode config split-network option}}
<tr>
 
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
  
 +
==== RouterOS client configuration ====
  
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
+
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.  
{{Note | If you are connected to the VPN over WiFi, the iOS device can go into sleep mode and disconnect from the network.}}
 
 
 
==== strongSwan client configuration ====
 
 
 
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export both client and CA certificates in PEM format.
 
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
/certificate
 
/certificate
add common-name=strongSwan_client name=strongSwan_client key-usage=tls-client
+
add common-name=RouterOS_client name=RouterOS_client key-usage=tls-client
sign strongSwan_client ca=ca
+
sign RouterOS_client ca=ca  
export-certificate ca
+
export-certificate RouterOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
export-certificate strongSwan_client export-passphrase=1234567890
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Three files are now located in the routers Files section: <b>cert_export_ca.crt</b>, <b>cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt</b> and <b>cert_export_strongSwan_client.key</b>. strongSwan accepts either PEM or DER format certificates and it is possible to just change the certificate extensions. The private key must be in PKCS1 format - it will need to be converted. We can do this with OpenSSL. Rename the certificates for a more convenient look.
+
A file named <b>cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Transfer the file to the RouterOS client device and import it.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ mv cert_export_ca.crt ca.pem
+
/certificate import file-name=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12 passphrase=1234567890
$ mv cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt strongSwan_client.pem
+
</pre>
$ openssl rsa -in cert_export_strongSwan_client.key -out strongSwan_clientKey.pem
 
</pre>
 
  
Download the certificates and the key to strongSwan client device and move the files to their appropriate directory. By default /etc/ipsec.d/ is used for certificate storage.
+
There should now be the self-signed CA certificate and the client certificate in Certificate menu. Usually the client certificate is imported first, but lets double check which is it.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ mv ca.pem /etc/ipsec.d/cacerts/ca.pem
+
/put [/certificate get [find common-name=RouterOS_client] name] 
$ mv strongSwan_client.pem /etc/ipsec.d/certs/strongSwan_client.pem
 
$ mv strongSwan_clientKey.pem /etc/ipsec.d/private/strongSwan_client.pem
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Add a new connection to /etc/ipsec.conf file
+
<b>cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0</b> is the client certificate. Now we can create the peer configuration.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
conn "ikev2"
+
/ip ipsec peer
        keyexchange=ikev2
+
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0 mode-config=request-only exchange-mode=ike2 generate-policy=port-strict
        ike=aes128-sha1-modp2048
 
        esp=aes128-sha1
 
        leftsourceip=%modeconfig
 
        leftcert=strongSwan_client.pem
 
        leftfirewall=yes
 
        right=2.2.2.2
 
        rightid="CN=2.2.2.2"
 
        rightsubnet=0.0.0.0/0
 
        auto=add
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Add exported passphrase for the private key to /etc/ipsec.secrets file
+
Verify that the connection is successfully established.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
: RSA strongSwan_client.pem "1234567890"
+
/ip ipsec
 +
remote-peers print
 +
installed-sa print
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
You can now restart (or start) the ipsec daemon and initialize the connection
+
==== Windows client configuration ====
  
<pre>
+
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.
$ ipsec restart
 
$ ipsec up ikev2
 
</pre>
 
 
 
===Road Warrior setup Ikev1 RSA Auth===
 
 
 
====Creating Certificates====
 
 
 
All certificates can be created on RouterOS server using certificate manager.
 
[[Manual:Create_Certificates#Generate_certificates_on_RouterOS | <code>See example >></code>]]
 
 
 
====Ipsec Server Config====
 
  
<pre>
 
 
/ip ipsec policy group
 
add name=test
 
 
/ip ipsec peer
 
add auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=server exchange-mode=main \
 
    generate-policy=port-override passive=yes policy-template-group=test remote-certificate=none
 
/ip ipsec policy
 
add dst-address=172.16.1.0/24 group=test src-address=172.16.2.0/24 template=yes
 
 
</pre>
 
 
====Ipsec Client Config====
 
 
====Testing CRL====
 
 
Now lets say client2 should not be able to connect anymore. We need to revoke its certificate so that it is excluded from CRL list.
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
/certificate
 
/certificate
issued-revoke client2
+
add common-name=Windows_client name=Windows_client key-usage=tls-client
 +
sign Windows_client ca=ca
 +
export-certificate Windows_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Notice R flag, which means that certificate is revoked
+
A file named <b>cert_export_Windows_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the Windows computer. Install the certificate by following the instructions. Make sure you select Local Machine store location.
<pre>
 
[admin@pe0] /certificate> print
 
Flags: K - private-key, D - dsa, L - crl, C - smart-card-key,
 
A - authority, I - issued, R - revoked, E - expired, T - trusted
 
#        NAME              COMMON-NAME              FINGERPRINT             
 
0 K L A T myCa              myCa                      7fa636e6576495fe78f1a4...
 
1 K  I T server            server                    cf0650a291bf4685f2fbd3...
 
2 K  I  client1            client1                  26233de30e89b203b946ab...
 
3 K  R  client2            client2                  cf172b62201befaf8d8966...
 
  
</pre>
+
[[File:Ike2v2_cert_win.png | 1300px]]
  
 +
You can now proceed to Network and Internet settings -> VPN and add a new configuration. Fill in the Connection name, Server name or address parameters. Select IKEv2 under VPN type. When it is done, it is necessary to select "Use machine certificates". This can be done in Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Properties menu for the VPN connection. The setting is located under Security tab.
  
Now if you kill current connection client2 will no be able to establish phase1.
+
[[File:Ike2v2_conf_win.png | 1300px]]
  
===Site to Site IpSec Tunnel===
+
Currently Windows 10 is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
  
Consider setup as illustrated below
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-192-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-192-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-128-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-GCM</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
</table>
  
[[file:site-to-site-ipsec-example.png]]
 
  
Two remote office routers are connected to internet and office workstations behind routers are NATed. Each office has its own local subnet, 10.1.202.0/24 for Office1 and 10.1.101.0/24 for Office2. Both remote offices needs secure tunnel to local networks behind routers.
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
 
+
<tr>
 
+
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
====IP Connectivity====
+
</tr>
 
+
<tr>
On both routers ether1 is used as wan port and ether2 is used to connect workstations. Also NAT rules are set tu masquerade local networks.
+
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
 
+
</tr>
 
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
Office1 router:
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
<pre>
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
/ip address
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
add address=192.168.90.1/24 interface=ether1
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>none</td><td>none</td></tr>
add address=10.1.202.1/24 interface=ether2
+
</table>
  
/ip route
 
add gateway=192.168.90.254
 
  
/ip firewall nat
+
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
add chain=srcnat out-interface=ether1 action=masquerade
 
</pre>
 
  
Office2 router:
+
==== Android Client Notes ====
<pre>
 
/ip address
 
add address=192.168.80.1/24 interface=ether1
 
add address=10.1.101.1/24 interface=ether2
 
  
/ip route
+
Native Android client does not support ikev2 at the moment. StrongSwan client from Play Store can be used to connect to ikev2 server.
add gateway=192.168.80.254
+
StrongSwan client the same as windows accept certificates and keys in pkcs12 format. So external tool is needed to convert exported .crt and .key files to .pfx and then import .pfx file.
  
/ip firewall nat
+
After its imported you will see CA and Client cert in user certificates:
add chain=srcnat out-interface=ether1 action=masquerade
 
</pre>
 
  
====IpSec Peer's config====
+
[[file:android-cert-import.png | 300px]]
  
Next step is to add peer's configuration. We need to specify peers address and port and pre-shared-key. Other parameters are left to default values.
 
  
Office1 router:
+
Now you can pick them in profile configuration.
<pre>
 
/ip ipsec peer
 
add address=192.168.80.1/32 port=500 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"
 
</pre>
 
Office2 router:
 
<pre>
 
/ip ipsec peer
 
add address=192.168.90.1/32 port=500 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"
 
</pre>
 
  
====Policy and proposal====
+
[[file:android-cl-cert.png | 300px]]
  
It is important that proposed authentication and encryption algorithms match on both routers. In this example we can use predefined "default" proposal
+
Ca certificate is selected automatically as shown in screenshot below, but if for some reason you need to specify exact CA certificate, then unselect "Select automatically" and pick imported CA from the list.
  
<pre>
+
[[file:android-ca-cert.png | 300px]]
[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec proposal> print
+
 
Flags: X - disabled
+
When connecting Android StrongSwan clients, make sure that on RouterOS proposal settings DH group is disabled, otherwise phase2 will fail.
0  name="default" auth-algorithms=sha1 enc-algorithms=3des lifetime=30m
+
 
    pfs-group=modp1024
+
==== macOS client configuration ====
</pre>
 
  
As we already have proposal as a next step we need correct IpSec policy. We want to encrypt traffic coming form 10.1.202.0/24 to 10.1.101.0/24 and vice versa.
+
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.
  
Office1 router:
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec policy
+
/certificate
add src-address=10.1.202.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-port=any \
+
add common-name=macOS_client name=macOS_client key-usage=tls-client
sa-src-address=192.168.90.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.80.1 \
+
sign macOS_client ca=ca
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default
+
export-certificate macOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
Office2 router:
 
<pre>
 
/ip ipsec policy
 
add src-address=10.1.101.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-port=any \
 
sa-src-address=192.168.80.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.90.1 \
 
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default
 
</pre>
 
Note that we configured tunnel mode instead of transport, as this is site to site encryption.
 
  
====NAT and Fasttrack Bypass====
+
A file named <b>cert_export_macOS_client.p12</b> is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the macOS computer and install the certificate in "System" keychain. It is necessary to mark the CA certificate as trusted manually since it is self-signed. Locate the certificate macOS Keychain Access app under System tab and mark it as Always Trust.
 +
 
 +
[[File:Ikev2_cert_macos.png | 900px]]
  
At this point if you will try to establish IpSec tunnel it will not work, packets will be rejected. This is because both routers have NAT rules that is changing source address before packet is encrypted. Router is unable to encrypt the packet, because source address do not match address specified in policy configuration. For more information see [[M:Packet_Flow#IPsec_encryption|packet flow ipsec example]].
+
You can now proceed to System Preferences -> Network and add a new configuration by clicking the + button. Select Interface: VPN, VPN Type: IKEv2 and name your connection. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank. Under Authentication Settings select None and choose the client certificate. You can now test the connectivity.
  
 +
[[File:Ikev2_conf_macos.png | 900px]]
  
To fix this we need to set up NAT bypass rule.
+
Currently macOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
  
Office1 router:
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
<pre>
+
<tr>
/ip firewall nat
+
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
+
</tr>
src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24
+
<tr>
</pre>
+
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
Office2 router:
+
</tr>
<pre>
+
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp2048</td></tr>
/ip firewall nat
+
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>ecp256</td></tr>
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
+
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1536</td></tr>
src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
</pre>
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
</table>
  
{{Note | If you previously tried to establish tunnel before NAT bypass rule was added, you have to clear connection table from existing connection or restart the routers }}
 
  
It is very important that bypass rule is placed at the top of all other NAT rules.
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
 
+
<tr>
Another issue is if you have fasttrack enabled, packet bypasses ipsec policies. So we need to add accept rule before fasttrack
+
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
<pre>
+
</tr>
/ip firewall filter
+
<tr>
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
+
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 connection-state=established,related
+
</tr>
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
+
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 connection-state=established,related
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
</pre>
+
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
  
However this can add significant load to CPU if there is a fair amount of tunnels and significant traffic on each tunnel.
+
==== iOS client configuration ====
  
Solution is to use RAW firewall tables to bypass connection tracking, that way eliminating need of filter rules listed above and reducing load on CPU by approximately 30%.
+
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip firewall raw
+
/certificate
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
+
add common-name=iOS_client name=iOS_client key-usage=tls-client
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24
+
sign iOS_client ca=ca
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
===L2TP/IPSec setup===
+
When installing certificates, check which formats iOS supports, client certificate can not be imported from CRT and KEY files, but you can use PKCS12 format. Typically PKCS12 bundle contains also CA certificate, but iOS does not install this CA, so self-signed CA certificate must be installed separately using PEM format.
  
See [[Manual:Interface/L2TP#Basic_L2TP.2FIpSec_setup | L2TP configuration examples]].
+
<pre>
 +
/certificate
 +
export-certificate ca type=pem
 +
export-certificate iOS_client type=pkcs12 export-passphrase=1234567890
 +
</pre>
  
===Allow Only Ipsec Encapsulated Traffic===
+
Two files are now located in the routers Files section: <b>cert_export_ca.crt</b> and <b>cert_export_iOS_client.p12</b>. Download and open these files on the iOS device and install both certificates by following the instructions. It is necessary to mark the self-signed CA certificate as trusted on the iOS device. This can be done in Settings -> General -> About -> Certificate Trust Settings menu. When it is done, check whether both certificates are marked as "verified" under Settings -> General -> Profiles menu.
  
There are some scenarios where for security reasons you would like to drop access from/to specific networks if incoming/outgoing packets are not encrypted. For example, If we have L2TP/Ipsec setup we would want to drop non encrypted L2TP connection attempts.
+
[[File:Ikev2_cert_ios.PNG | 900px]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
You can now proceed to Settings -> General -> VPN menu and add a new configuration. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank.
 +
 
 +
[[File:Ikev2_conf_ios.PNG | 450px]]
  
There are several ways how to achieve this:
 
* Using ipsec policy matcher in firewall;
 
* Using generic ipsec policy with action=drop and lower priority (can be used in road warrior setups where dynamic policies are generated);
 
* By setting DSCP or priority in mangle and matching the same values in firewall after decapsulation.
 
  
====Ipsec Policy Matcher====
+
Currently iOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:
  
Lets set up ipsec policy matcher to accept all packets that matched any of ipsec policies and drop the rest
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
<pre>
+
<tr>
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
+
<th colspan=3>Phase 1</th>
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec
+
</tr>
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes
+
<tr>
</pre>
+
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>DH Group</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp2048</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>ecp256</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>modp1536</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>modp1024</td></tr>
 +
</table>
  
Ipsec policy matcher takes two parameters direction, policy. We used incoming direction and ipsec policy. Ipsec policy option allows us to inspect packets after decapsulation, so for example if we want to allow only gre encapsulated packet from specific source address and drop the rest we could set up following rules
 
  
<pre>
+
<table class="styled_table" style="width:50%">
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
+
<tr>
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=gre src=address=192.168.33.1
+
<th colspan=3>Phase 2</th>
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes
+
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Hash Algorithm</th><th>Encryption Algorithm</th><th>PFS Group</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA256</td><td>AES-256-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>AES-128-CBC</td><td>none</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td>SHA1</td><td>3DES</td><td>none</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Warning | Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.}}
 +
{{Note | If you are connected to the VPN over WiFi, the iOS device can go into sleep mode and disconnect from the network.}}
 +
 
 +
==== strongSwan client configuration ====
 +
 
 +
Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export both client and CA certificates in PEM format.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/certificate
 +
add common-name=strongSwan_client name=strongSwan_client key-usage=tls-client
 +
sign strongSwan_client ca=ca
 +
export-certificate ca
 +
export-certificate strongSwan_client export-passphrase=1234567890
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Three files are now located in the routers Files section: <b>cert_export_ca.crt</b>, <b>cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt</b> and <b>cert_export_strongSwan_client.key</b>. strongSwan accepts either PEM or DER format certificates and it is possible to just change the certificate extensions. The private key must be in PKCS1 format - it will need to be converted. We can do this with OpenSSL. Rename the certificates for a more convenient look.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
$ mv cert_export_ca.crt ca.pem
 +
$ mv cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt strongSwan_client.pem
 +
$ openssl rsa -in cert_export_strongSwan_client.key -out strongSwan_clientKey.pem
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Download the certificates and the key to strongSwan client device and move the files to their appropriate directory. By default /etc/ipsec.d/ is used for certificate storage.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
$ mv ca.pem /etc/ipsec.d/cacerts/ca.pem
 +
$ mv strongSwan_client.pem /etc/ipsec.d/certs/strongSwan_client.pem
 +
$ mv strongSwan_clientKey.pem /etc/ipsec.d/private/strongSwan_client.pem
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Add a new connection to /etc/ipsec.conf file
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
conn "ikev2"
 +
        keyexchange=ikev2
 +
        ike=aes128-sha1-modp2048
 +
        esp=aes128-sha1
 +
        leftsourceip=%modeconfig
 +
        leftcert=strongSwan_client.pem
 +
        leftfirewall=yes
 +
        right=2.2.2.2
 +
        rightid="CN=2.2.2.2"
 +
        rightsubnet=0.0.0.0/0
 +
        auto=add
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
Add exported passphrase for the private key to /etc/ipsec.secrets file
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
: RSA strongSwan_client.pem "1234567890"
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
You can now restart (or start) the ipsec daemon and initialize the connection
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
$ ipsec restart
 +
$ ipsec up ikev2
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
===Basic L2TP/IPsec setup===
 +
 
 +
This example demonstrates how to easily setup L2TP/IPsec server on RouterOS for road warrior connections (works with Windows, Android, iOS, macOS and other vendor L2TP/IPsec implementations).
 +
 
 +
====RouterOS server configuration====
 +
 
 +
First step is to enable L2TP server:
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/interface l2tp-server server
 +
set enabled=yes use-ipsec=required ipsec-secret=mySecret default-profile=default
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
<var>use-ipsec</var> is set to <b>required</b> to make sure that only IPsec encapsulated L2TP connections are accepted.
 +
 
 +
Now what it does is enables L2TP server and creates dynamic IPsec peer with specified secret.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec peer> print
 +
0  D address=0.0.0.0/0 local-address=0.0.0.0 passive=yes port=500
 +
      auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="123" generate-policy=port-strict
 +
      exchange-mode=main-l2tp send-initial-contact=yes nat-traversal=yes
 +
      hash-algorithm=sha1 enc-algorithm=3des,aes-128,aes-192,aes-256
 +
      dh-group=modp1024 lifetime=1d dpd-interval=2m dpd-maximum-failures=5
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
{{Note | Care must be taken if static IPsec peer configuration exists. }}
 +
 
 +
Next step is to create VPN pool and add some users.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
/ip pool add name=vpn-pool range=192.168.99.2-192.168.99.100
 +
 
 +
/ppp profile
 +
set default local-address=192.168.99.1 remote-address=vpn-pool
 +
 
 +
/ppp secret
 +
add name=user1 password=123
 +
add name=user2 password=234
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
Now router is ready to accept L2TP/IPsec client connections.
  
For L2TP rule set would be:
+
====RouterOS client configuration====
<pre>
 
add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
 
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=udp dst-port=1701
 
add action=drop chain=input protocol=udp dst-port=1701 comment="drop l2tp" in-interface=WAN log=yes
 
</pre>
 
 
 
====Using generic Ipsec Policy====
 
  
The trick of this method is to add default policy with action drop. Lets assume we are running L2TP/IpSec server 1.1.1.1 with public address and we want to drop all non encrypted L2TP:
+
For RouterOS to work as L2TP/IPsec client, it is as simple as adding a new L2TP client.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/ip ipsec policy
+
/interface l2tp-client
add src-address=1.1.1.1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 sa-src-address=1.1.1.1 \
+
add connect-to=1.1.1.1 disabled=no ipsec-secret=mySecret name=l2tp-out1 \
  protocol=udp src-port=1701 tunnel=yes action=discard
+
    password=123 use-ipsec=yes user=user1
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Now router will drop any L2TP unencrypted incoming traffic, but after successful L2TP/Ipsec connection dynamic policy is created with higher priority than it is on default static rule and packets matching that dynamic rule can be forwarded.
+
It will automatically create dynamic IPsec peer and policy configuration.
 
 
{{ Note | Starting from RouterOS 6.40 policy order is important. For this to work, make sure the static drop policy is below the dynamic policies. Move it below the policy template if necessary. }}
 
 
 
<pre>
 
[admin@rack2_10g1] /ip ipsec policy> print
 
Flags: T - template, X - disabled, D - dynamic, I - inactive, * - default
 
0 T * group=default src-address=::/0 dst-address=::/0 protocol=all
 
      proposal=default template=yes
 
 
 
1  D  src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=10.5.130.71/32
 
      dst-port=any protocol=udp action=encrypt level=require
 
      ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=no sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
 
      sa-dst-address=10.5.130.71
 
 
 
2    src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0
 
      dst-port=any protocol=udp action=discard level=unique
 
      ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
 
      sa-dst-address=0.0.0.0 proposal=default manual-sa=none
 
 
 
</pre>
 
  
 
===Connecting with Shrew Client and allowing only Encrypted traffic===
 
===Connecting with Shrew Client and allowing only Encrypted traffic===
Line 2,188: Line 2,301:
 
;"phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" what does it mean?
 
;"phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" what does it mean?
 
:There are communication problems between the peers. Possible causes include - misconfigured Phase 1 IP addresses; firewall blocking UDP ports 500 and 4500; NAT between peers not properly translating IPsec negotiation packets.
 
:There are communication problems between the peers. Possible causes include - misconfigured Phase 1 IP addresses; firewall blocking UDP ports 500 and 4500; NAT between peers not properly translating IPsec negotiation packets.
 +
:This error message can also appear when <var>local-address</var> parameter is not used properly. More information available [[#Manually_specifying_local-address_parameter_under_Peer_configuration | here]].
  
 
;Random packet drops or connections over the tunnel is very slow, enabling packet sniffer/torch fixes the problem
 
;Random packet drops or connections over the tunnel is very slow, enabling packet sniffer/torch fixes the problem
:Problem is that before encapsulation packets are sent to fasttrack/fastpath, thus bypassing ipsec policy.
+
:Problem is that before encapsulation packets are sent to Fasttrack/FastPath, thus bypassing IPsec policy checking.
:Solution is to exclude traffic that need to be encapsulated/decaplsulated from fasttrack, see configuration example [[#NAT_and_Fasttrack_Bypass | here]].
+
:Solution is to exclude traffic that need to be encapsulated/decaplsulated from Fasttrack, see configuration example [[#NAT_and_Fasttrack_Bypass | here]].
  
 
;How to enable ike2?
 
;How to enable ike2?
: For basic configuration enabling ike2 is very simple, just change <var>exchange-mode</var> in peer settings to <b>ike2</b>
+
: For basic configuration enabling ike2 is very simple, just change <var>exchange-mode</var> in peer settings to <b>ike2</b>.
  
 
; fatal NO-PROPOSAL-CHOSEN notify messsage
 
; fatal NO-PROPOSAL-CHOSEN notify messsage
Line 2,205: Line 2,319:
 
: Yes, you can, see examples [[#Allow_Only_Ipsec_Encapsulated_Traffic | here]].
 
: Yes, you can, see examples [[#Allow_Only_Ipsec_Encapsulated_Traffic | here]].
  
 +
; I enable IKEv2 REAUTH on StrongSwan and got error 'initiator did not reauthenticate as requested'
 +
: RouterOS does not support rfc4478, reauth must be disabled on StrongSwan.
  
 
{{cont}}
 
{{cont}}

Latest revision as of 12:46, 23 May 2018

Version.png

Applies to RouterOS: v6.0 +

Contents

Summary

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec
Package required: security


Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a set of protocols defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to secure packet exchange over unprotected IP/IPv6 networks such as Internet.


IPsec protocol suite can be divided in following groups:

  • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocols. Dynamically generates and distributes cryptographic keys for AH and ESP.
  • Authentication Header (AH) RFC 4302
  • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) RFC 4303

Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)

The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is a protocol that provides authenticated keying material for Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) framework. There are other key exchange schemes that work with ISAKMP, but IKE is the most widely used one. Together they provide means for authentication of hosts and automatic management of security associations (SA).

Most of the time IKE daemon is doing nothing. There are two possible situations when it is activated:

There is some traffic caught by a policy rule which needs to become encrypted or authenticated, but the policy doesn't have any SAs. The policy notifies IKE daemon about that, and IKE daemon initiates connection to remote host. IKE daemon responds to remote connection. In both cases, peers establish connection and execute 2 phases:

  • Phase 1 - The peers agree upon algorithms they will use in the following IKE messages and authenticate. The keying material used to derive keys for all SAs and to protect following ISAKMP exchanges between hosts is generated also. This phase should match following settings:
    • authentication method
    • DH group
    • encryption algorithm
    • exchange mode
    • hash alorithm
    • NAT-T
    • DPD and lifetime (optional)
  • Phase 2 - The peers establish one or more SAs that will be used by IPsec to encrypt data. All SAs established by IKE daemon will have lifetime values (either limiting time, after which SA will become invalid, or amount of data that can be encrypted by this SA, or both). This phase should match following settings:
    • Ipsec protocol
    • mode (tunnel or transport)
    • authentication method
    • PFS (DH) group
    • lifetime
Icon-note.png

Note: There are two lifetime values - soft and hard. When SA reaches it's soft lifetime treshold, the IKE daemon receives a notice and starts another phase 2 exchange to replace this SA with fresh one. If SA reaches hard lifetime, it is discarded.


Icon-warn.png

Warning: Phase 1 is not re-keyed if DPD is disabled when lifetime expires, only phase 2 is re-keyed. To force phase 1 re-key, enable DPD.


IKE can optionally provide a Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), which is a property of key exchanges, that, in turn, means for IKE that compromising the long term phase 1 key will not allow to easily gain access to all IPsec data that is protected by SAs established through this phase 1. It means an additional keying material is generated for each phase 2.

Generation of keying material is computationally very expensive. Exempli gratia, the use of modp8192 group can take several seconds even on very fast computer. It usually takes place once per phase 1 exchange, which happens only once between any host pair and then is kept for long time. PFS adds this expensive operation also to each phase 2 exchange.

Diffie-Hellman Groups

Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol allows two parties without any initial shared secret to create one securely. The following Modular Exponential (MODP) and Elliptic Curve (EC2N) Diffie-Hellman (also known as "Oakley") Groups are supported:

Diffie-Hellman GroupNameReference
Group 1768 bit MODP groupRFC 2409
Group 21024 bits MODP groupRFC 2409
Group 3EC2N group on GP(2^155)RFC 2409
Group 4EC2N group on GP(2^185)RFC 2409
Group 51536 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 142048 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 153072 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 164096 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 176144 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 188192 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 19256 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903
Group 20384 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903
Group 21521 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903

More on standards can be found here.

IKE Traffic

To avoid problems with IKE packets hit some SPD rule and require to encrypt it with not yet established SA (that this packet perhaps is trying to establish), locally originated packets with UDP source port 500 are not processed with SPD. The same way packets with UDP destination port 500 that are to be delivered locally are not processed in incoming policy check.


Setup Procedure

To get IPsec to work with automatic keying using IKE-ISAKMP you will have to configure policy, peer and proposal (optional) entries.

Icon-warn.png

Warning: Ipsec is very sensitive to time changes. If both ends of the IpSec tunnel are not synchronizing time equally(for example, different NTP servers not updating time with the same timestamp), tunnels will break and will have to be established again.



EAP Authentication methods

Outer Auth Inner Auth
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-PEAPv0

EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-GPSK
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS

EAP-SIM
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS

PAP
CHAP
MS-CHAP
MS-CHAPv2
EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS

EAP-TLS on Windows is called "Smart Card or other certificate".

Authentication Header (AH)

AH is a protocol that provides authentication of either all or part of the contents of a datagram through the addition of a header that is calculated based on the values in the datagram. What parts of the datagram are used for the calculation, and the placement of the header, depends whether tunnel or transport mode is used.


The presence of the AH header allows to verify the integrity of the message, but doesn't encrypt it. Thus, AH provides authentication but not privacy. Another protocol (ESP) is considered superior, it provides data privacy and also its own authentication method.


RouterOS supports the following authentication algorithms for AH:

  • SHA2 (256, 512)
  • SHA1
  • MD5


Transport mode

In transport mode AH header is inserted after IP header. IP data and header is used to calculate authentication value. IP fields that might change during transit, like TTL and hop count, are set to zero values before authentication.


Tunnel mode

In tunnel mode original IP packet is encapsulated within a new IP packet. All of the original IP packet is authenticated.

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) uses shared key encryption to provide data privacy. ESP also supports its own authentication scheme like that used in AH.

ESP packages its fields in a very different way than AH. Instead of having just a header, it divides its fields into three components:

  • ESP Header - Comes before the encrypted data and its placement depends on whether ESP is used in transport mode or tunnel mode.
  • ESP Trailer - This section is placed after the encrypted data. It contains padding that is used to align the encrypted data.
  • ESP Authentication Data - This field contains an Integrity Check Value (ICV), computed in a manner similar to how the AH protocol works, for when ESP's optional authentication feature is used.

Transport mode

In transport mode ESP header is inserted after original IP header. ESP trailer and authentication value is added to the end of the packet. In this mode only IP payload is encrypted and authenticated, IP header is not secured.

ESP-transport wiki.png

Tunnel mode

In tunnel mode original IP packet is encapsulated within a new IP packet thus securing IP payload and IP header.

ESP-tunnel wiki.png

Encryption algorithms

RouterOS ESP supports various encryption and authentication algorithms.

Authentication:

  • MD5
  • SHA1
  • SHA2 (256-bit, 512-bit)

Encryption:

  • AES - 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit key AES-CBC, AES-CTR and AES-GCM algorithms;
  • Blowfish - added since v4.5
  • Twofish - added since v4.5
  • Camellia - 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit key Camellia encryption algorithm added since v4.5
  • DES - 56-bit DES-CBC encryption algorithm;
  • 3DES - 168-bit DES encryption algorithm;

Hardware acceleration

Hardware acceleration allows to do faster encryption process by using built-in encryption engine inside CPU.

RouterBoard AES-CBC AES-CTR AES-GCM
MD5 SHA1 SHA256 SHA512 MD5 SHA1 SHA256 SHA512 MD5 SHA1 SHA256 SHA512
RBcAPGi-5acD2nD (cAP ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBD52G-5HacD2HnD (hAP ac2) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBDiscG-5acD (DISC Lite5 ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBLDFG-5acD (LDF 5 ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBLHGG-5acD (LHG 5 ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBLHGG-5acD-XL (LHG XL 5 ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBLHGG-60ad (Wireless Wire Dish) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBM11Gyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBM33Gyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBSXTsqG-5acD (SXTsq 5 ac) *noyesyesnonononononononono
RBwAPG-60ad (wAP 60G) *yesyesyesnonononononononono
RBwAPG-60ad-A (wAP 60G AP) *yesyesyesnonononononononono
RB450Gx4 *yesyesyesnonononononononono
RB750Gr3 (hEX)yesyesyesnonononononononono
RB760iGS (hEX S)yesyesyesnonononononononono
RB850Gx2 **yesyesyesyesnononononononono
RB1100AHx2yesyesyesnonononononononono
RB1100AHx4yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
RB1200 ***yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesnononono
CCR seriesyesyesyesnoyesyesyesnonononono
x86 (AES-NI) ***yesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes

* supported only 128 bit and 256 bit key sizes

** only manufactured since 2016, serial numbers that begin with number 5 and 7

*** AES-CBC and AES-CTR only encryption is accelerated, hashing done in software

IPsec throughput results of various encryption and hash algorithm combinations are published on MikroTik products page. When testing throughput, please follow the guidelines available in the Traffic Generator manual page

Policies

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec policy


Policy table is used to determine whether security settings should be applied to a packet.


Properties

Property Description
action (discard | encrypt | none; Default: encrypt) Specifies what to do with packet matched by the policy.
  • none - pass the packet unchanged.
  • discard - drop the packet.
  • encrypt - apply transformations specified in this policy and it's SA.
comment (string; Default: ) Short description of the policy.
disabled (yes | no; Default: no) Whether policy is used to match packets.
dst-address (IP/IPv6 prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/32) Destination address to be matched in packets.
dst-port (integer:0..65535 | any; Default: any) Destination port to be matched in packets. If set to any all ports will be matched.
group (string; Default: default) Name of the policy group to which this template is assigned.
ipsec-protocols (ah | esp; Default: esp) Specifies what combination of Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload protocols you want to apply to matched traffic.
level (require | unique | use; Default: require) Specifies what to do if some of the SAs for this policy cannot be found:
  • use - skip this transform, do not drop packet and do not acquire SA from IKE daemon;
  • require - drop packet and acquire SA;
  • unique - drop packet and acquire a unique SA that is only used with this particular policy. It is used in setups where multiple clients can sit behind one public IP address (clients behind NAT).
proposal (string; Default: default) Name of the proposal template that will be sent by IKE daemon to establish SAs for this policy.
protocol (all | egp | ggp| icmp | igmp | ...; Default: all) IP packet protocol to match.
sa-dst-address (ip/ipv6 address; Default: ::) SA destination IP/IPv6 address (remote peer).
sa-src-address (ip/ipv6 address; Default: ::) SA source IP/IPv6 address (local peer).
src-address (ip/ipv6 prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/32) Source address to be matched in packets.
src-port (any | integer:0..65535; Default: any) Source port to be matched in packets. If set to any all ports will be matched.
template (yes | no; Default: no) Creates a template and assigns it to specified policy group.

Following parameters are used by template:

  • group - name of the policy group to which this template is assigned;
  • src-address, dst-address - Requested subnet must match in both directions(for example 0.0.0.0/0 to allow all);
  • protocol - protocol to match, if set to all, then any protocol is accepted;
  • proposal - SA parameters used for this template;
  • level - useful when unique is required in setups with multiple clients behind NAT.
tunnel (yes | no; Default: no) Specifies whether to use tunnel mode.


Read only properties

Property Description
active (yes | no) Whether this policy is currently in use.
default (yes | no) Whether this is a default system entry.
dynamic (yes | no) Whether this is a dynamically added or generated entry.
invalid (yes | no) Whether this policy is invalid - possible cause is duplicate policy with the same src-address and dst-address.
ph2-count (integer) Number of active phase 2 sessions associated with the policy.
ph2-state (expired | no-phase2 | established) Indication of the progress of key establishing.
priority () Shows kernel priority.


Icon-warn.png

Warning: policy order is important starting form v6.40. Now it works similar as firewall filters where policies are executed from top to bottom (priority parameter is removed).


Icon-note.png

Note: All packets are IPIP encapsulated in tunnel mode, and their new IP header's src-address and dst-address are set to sa-src-address and sa-dst-address values of this policy. If you do not use tunnel mode (id est you use transport mode), then only packets whose source and destination addresses are the same as sa-src-address and sa-dst-address can be processed by this policy. Transport mode can only work with packets that originate at and are destined for IPsec peers (hosts that established security associations). To encrypt traffic between networks (or a network and a host) you have to use tunnel mode.


Groups

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec policy group


In this menu it is possible to create additional policy groups used by policy templates.


Properties

Property Description
name (string; Default: )
comment (string; Default: )

Statistics

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec statistics


This menu shows various IPsec statistics and errors.


Read only properties

Property Description
in-errors (integer) All inbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
in-buffer-errors (integer) No free buffer.
in-header-errors (integer) Header error.
in-no-states (integer) No state is found i.e. either inbound SPI, address, or IPsec protocol at SA is wrong.
in-state-protocol-errors (integer) Transformation protocol specific error, for example SA key is wrong or hardware accelerator is unable to handle amount of packets.
in-state-mode-errors (integer) Transformation mode specific error.
in-state-sequence-errors (integer) Sequence number is out of window.
in-state-expired (integer) State is expired.
in-state-mismatches (integer) State has mismatched option, for example UDP encapsulation type is mismatched.
in-state-invalid (integer) State is invalid.
in-template-mismatches (integer) No matching template for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but SP rule is wrong. Possible cause is mismatched sa-source or sa-destination address.
in-no-policies (integer) No policy is found for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but no SP is found.
in-policy-blocked (integer) Policy discards.
in-policy-errors (integer) Policy errors.
out-errors (integer) All outbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
out-bundle-errors (integer) Bundle generation error.
out-bundle-check-errors (integer) Bundle check error.
out-no-states (integer) No state is found.
out-state-protocol-errors (integer) Transformation protocol specific error.
out-state-mode-errors (integer) Transformation mode specific error.
out-state-sequence-errors (integer) Sequence errors, for example sequence number overflow.
out-state-expired (integer) State is expired.
out-policy-blocked (integer) Policy discards.
out-policy-dead (integer) Policy is dead.
out-policy-errors (integer) Policy error.

Peers

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec peer


Peer configuration settings are used to establish connections between IKE daemons. This connection then will be used to negotiate keys and algorithms for SAs. Exchange mode is the only unique identifier between the peers, meaning that there can be multiple peer configurations with the same remote-address as long as different exchange-mode is used.


Properties

Property Description
address (IP/IPv6 Prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/0) If remote peer's address matches this prefix, then the peer configuration is used in authentication and establishment of Phase 1. If several peer's addresses match several configuration entries, the most specific one (i.e. the one with largest netmask) will be used.
auth-method (eap-radius | pre-shared-key | pre-shared-key-xauth | rsa-signature | rsa-key | rsa-signature-hybrid; Default: pre-shared-key) Authentication method:
  • eap-radius - IKEv2 EAP RADIUS passthrough authentication for responder (RFC 3579). Server certificate in this case is required. If server certificate is not specified then only clients supporting EAP-only (RFC 5998) will be able to connect. Note that EAP method should be compatible with EAP-only.
  • pre-shared-key - authenticate by a password (secret) string shared between the peers
  • rsa-signature - authenticate using a pair of RSA certificates
  • rsa-key - authenticate using a RSA key imported in Ipsec key menu.
  • pre-shared-key-xauth - mutual PSK authentication + xauth username/password. passive parameter identifies server/client side
  • rsa-signature-hybrid - responder certificate authentication with initiator Xauth. passive parameter identifies server/client side
certificate (string; Default: ) Name of a certificate listed in certificate table (signing packets; the certificate must have private key). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method (auth-method=rsa-signature) is used.
comment (string; Default: ) Short description of the peer.
compatibility-options (skip-peer-id-validation; Default: ) Compatibility options to work with peers not following RFC guidelines.
dh-group (ec2n155 | ec2n185 | modp1024 | modp1536 | modp2048 | modp3072 | modp4096 | modp6144 | modp768; Default: modp1024) Diffie-Hellman group (cipher strength)
disabled (yes | no; Default: no) Whether peer is used to match remote peer's prefix.
dpd-interval (time | disable-dpd; Default: 2m) Dead peer detection interval. If set to disable-dpd, dead peer detection will not be used.
dpd-maximum-failures (integer: 1..100; Default: 5) Maximum count of failures until peer is considered to be dead. Applicable if DPD is enabled.
enc-algorithm (3des | aes-128 | aes-192 | aes-256 | blowfish | camellia-128 | camellia-192 | camellia-256 | des; Default: aes-128) List of encryption algorithms that will be used by the peer.
exchange-mode (aggressive | base | main | main-l2tp | ike2; Default: main) Different ISAKMP phase 1 exchange modes according to RFC 2408. Do not use other modes then main unless you know what you are doing. main-l2tp mode relaxes rfc2409 section 5.4, to allow pre-shared-key authentication in main mode. ike2 mode enables Ikev2 RFC 7296. Parameters that are ignored by Ikev2 proposal-check, compatibility-options, lifebytes, dpd-maximum-failures.
generate-policy (no | port-override | port-strict; Default: no) Allow this peer to establish SA for non-existing policies. Such policies are created dynamically for the lifetime of SA. Automatic policies allows, for example, to create IPsec secured L2TP tunnels, or any other setup where remote peer's IP address is not known at the configuration time.
  • no - do not generate policies
  • port-override -- generate policies and force policy to use any port (old behavior)
  • port-strict -- use ports from peer's proposal, which should match peer's policy
hash-algorithm (md5 | sha1 | sha256 | sha512; Default: sha1) Hashing algorithm. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
key (string; Default: ) Name of the key from key menu. Applicable if auth-method=rsa-key.
lifebytes (Integer: 0..4294967295; Default: 0) Phase 1 lifebytes is used only as administrative value which is added to proposal. Used in cases if remote peer requires specific lifebytes value to establish phase 1.
lifetime (time; Default: 1d) Phase 1 lifetime: specifies how long the SA will be valid.
local-address (IP/IPv6 Address; Default: ) Routers local address on which Phase 1 should be bounded to.
mode-config (none | request-only | string; Default: none) Name of the mode config parameters from mode-config menu. When parameter is set mode-config is enabled.
  • initiator peer on phase1 will send mode-config request and will set assigned IP address and DNS.
  • responder will assign ip address if address-pool is specified, will send also DNS server addresses and split-include subnets (if defined).
my-id (auto | fqdn | user-fqdn | key-id; Default: auto) This parameter sets IKE ID to specified mode. It is possible to manually set two modes FQDN and USER_FQDN.
  • FQDN - fully qualified domain name
  • USER_FQDN - specifies a fully-qualified username string, for example, "user@domain.com";
  • address - IP address is used as ID;
  • auto - tries to use correct ID automatically: IP for PSK, FQDN for Cert based connections;
  • key-id - Use the specified key-id for the identity
nat-traversal (yes | no; Default: no) Use Linux NAT-T mechanism to solve IPsec incompatibility with NAT routers inbetween IPsec peers. This can only be used with ESP protocol (AH is not supported by design, as it signs the complete packet, including IP header, which is changed by NAT, rendering AH signature invalid). The method encapsulates IPsec ESP traffic into UDP streams in order to overcome some minor issues that made ESP incompatible with NAT.
notrack-chain (string; Default: ) Adds raw firewall rules matching ipsec policy to specified chain.
passive (yes | no; Default: no) When passive mode is enabled will wait for remote peer to initiate IKE connection. Enabled passive mode also indicates that peer is xauth responder, and disabled passive mode - xauth initiator. When passive mode is disabled peer will try to establish not only phase1, but also phase2 automatically, if policies are configured or created during phase1.
policy-template-group (none | string; Default: ) If generate-policy is enabled, responder checks against templates from the same group. If none of the templates match, Phase2 SA will not be established.
port (integer:0..65535; Default: 500) Communication port used (when router is initiator) to connect to remote peer in cases if remote peer uses non-default port.
proposal-check (claim | exact | obey | strict; Default: obey) Phase 2 lifetime check logic:
  • claim - take shortest of proposed and configured lifetimes and notify initiator about it
  • exact - require lifetimes to be the same
  • obey - accept whatever is sent by an initiator
  • strict - if proposed lifetime is longer than the default then reject proposal otherwise accept proposed lifetime
remote-certificate (string; Default: ) Name of a certificate (listed in certificate table) for authenticating the remote side (validating packets; no private key required). Applicable if RSA signature authentication method is used. If remote-certificate is not specified then received certificate from remote peer is used and checked against CA in certificate store. Proper CA must be imported in certificate store.
secret (string; Default: ) Secret string (in case pre-shared key authentication is used). If it starts with '0x', it is parsed as a hexadecimal value
send-initial-contact (yes | no; Default: yes) Specifies whether to send "initial contact" IKE packet or wait for remote side, this packet should trigger removal of old peer SAs for current source address. Usually in road warrior setups clients are initiators and this parameter should be set to no. Initial contact is not sent if modecfg or xauth is enabled for ikev1.
xauth-login (string; Default: ) initiator (client) XAuth username
xauth-password (string; Default: ) initiator (client) XAuth password


Read only properties

Property Description
dynamic (yes | no) Whether this is a dynamically added entry by different service (e.g L2TP).
responder (yes | no) Whether this peer will act as a responder only (listen to incoming requests) and not initiate a connection.


Icon-note.png

Note: exchange modes main and l2tp-main are treated the same, so these modes cannot be used select config between multiple peers.


Icon-note.png

Note: IPSec phases information is erased, when /ip ipsec peer configuration is modified on the fly, however packets are being encrypted/decrypted because of installed-sa (for example remote-peers information is erased, when peer configuration is modified.


Remote Peers

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec remote-peers


This menu provides various statistics about remote peers that currently have established phase 1 connection.


Read only properties

Property Description
dynamic-address (ip/ipv6 address) Dynamically assigned IP address by Mode config
last-seen (time) Duration since last message received by this peer.
local-address (ip/ipv6 address) Local address on the router used by this peer.
natt-peer (yes | no) Whether NAT-T is used for this peer.
remote-address (ip/ipv6 address) Remote peer's ip/ipv6 address.
responder (yes | no) Whether the connection is initiated by remote peer.
side (initiator | responder) Shows which side initiated the Phase1 negotiation.
state (string) State of phase 1 negotiation with the peer. For example when phase1 and phase 2 are negotiated it will show state "established".
uptime (time) How long peers are in established state.


Commands

Property Description
kill-connections () Manually disconnects all remote peers.

Mode configs

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec mode-config


ISAKMP and IKEv2 configuration attributes are configured in this menu.


Properties

Property Description
address-pool (none | string; Default: ) Name of the address pool from which responder will try to assign address if mode-config is enabled.
address-prefix-length (integer [1..32]; Default: ) Prefix length (netmask) of assigned address from the pool.
comment (string; Default: )
name (string; Default: )
split-include (list of IP prefix; Default: ) List of subnets in CIDR format, which to tunnel. Subnets will be sent to the peer using CISCO UNITY extension, remote peer will create specific dynamic policies.
static-dns (list of IP; Default: ) Manually specified DNS server's IP address to be sent to the client.
system-dns (yes | no; Default: ) When this option is enabled DNS addresses will be taken from /ip dns.


Read only properties

Property Description
default (yes | no) Whether this is a default system entry.
Icon-note.png

Note: Not all IKE implementations support multiple split networks provided by split-include option.


Icon-note.png

Note: If RouterOS client is initiator, it will always send CISCO UNITY extension, and RouterOS supports only split-include from this extension.


Icon-note.png

Note: It is not possible to use system-dns and static-dns at the same time.


Proposals

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec proposal


Proposal information that will be sent by IKE daemons to establish SAs for certain policy.


Properties

Property Description
auth-algorithms (md5|null|sha1|sha256|sha512; Default: sha1) Allowed algorithms for authorization. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
comment (string; Default: )
disabled (yes | no; Default: no) Whether item is disabled.
enc-algorithms (null|des|3des|aes-128-cbc|aes-128-cbc|aes-128gcm|aes-192-cbc|aes-192-ctr|aes-192-gcm|aes-256-cbc|aes-256-ctr|aes-256-gcm|blowfish|camellia-128|camellia-192|camellia-256|twofish; Default: aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc) Allowed algorithms and key lengths to use for SAs.
lifetime (time; Default: 30m) How long to use SA before throwing it out.
name (string; Default: )
pfs-group (ec2n155 | ec2n185 | ecp256 | ecp384 | ecp521 | modp768 | modp1024 | modp1536 | modp2048 | modp3072 | modp4096 | modp6144 | modp8192 | none; Default: modp1024) Diffie-Helman group used for Perfect Forward Secrecy.


Read only properties

Property Description
default (yes | no) Whether this is a default system entry.

Installed SAs

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec installed-sa


This menu provides information about installed security associations including the keys.


Read only properties

Property Description
AH (yes | no) Whether AH protocol is used by this SA.
ESP (yes | no) Whether ESP protocol is used by this SA.
add-lifetime (time/time) Added lifetime for the SA in format soft/hard:
  • soft - time period after which ike will try to establish new SA;
  • hard - time period after which SA is deleted.
addtime (time) Date and time when this SA was added.
auth-algorithm (md5 | null | sha1 | ...) Currently used authentication algorithm.
auth-key (string) Used authentication key.
current-bytes (64-bit integer) Number of bytes seen by this SA.
dst-address (IP) Destination address of this SA.
enc-algorithm (des | 3des | aes-cbc | ...) Currently used encryption algorithm.
enc-key (string) Used encryption key.
enc-key-size (number) Used encryption key length.
expires-in (yes | no) Time left until rekeying.
hw-aead (yes | no) Whether this SA is hardware accelerated.
replay (integer) Size of replay window in bytes.
spi (string) Security Parameter Index identification tag
src-address (IP) Source address of this SA.
state (string) Shows the current state of the SA ("mature", "dying" etc)


Commands

Property Description
flush () Manually removes all installed security associations.

Keys

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec key


This menu lists all imported public andprivate keys, that can be used for peer authentication. Menu has several commands to work with keys.


Properties

Property Description
name (string; Default: )


Read only properties

Property Description
key-size (1024 | 2048 | 4096) Size of this key.
private-key (yes | no) Whether this is a private key.
rsa (yes | no) Whether this is a RSA key.


Commands

Property Description
export-pub-key (file-name; key) Export public key to file from one of existing private keys.
generate-key (key-size; name) Generate private key. Takes two parameters, name of newly generated key and key size 1024,2048 and 4096.
import (file-name; name) Import key from file.

Users

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec user


The menu consists of list of allowed XAuth users.


Property Description
address (IP; Default: ) IP address assigned to the client. If not set dynamic address is used allocated from the address-pool defined in Mode config menu.
name (string; Default: ) Username.
password (string; Default: ) Password.

Settings

Sub-menu: /ip ipsec user settings


Property Description
xauth-use-radius (yes | no; Default: ) Whether to use Radius client for XAuth users or not.
Icon-note.png

Note: Radius accounting currently is not supported by IPsec, only authentication.


Application Guides

Simple mutual PSK XAuth configuration

Server side configuration:

/ip ipsec peer
add address=2.2.2.1 auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth secret="123" passive=yes

/ip ipsec user
add name=test password=345

Client side configuration:

/ip ipsec peer
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth secret="123" \
  xauth-login=test xauth-password=345


Icon-note.png

Note: On server side it is mandatory to set passive to yes when XAuth is used.


Allow only IPsec encapsulated traffic

There are some scenarios where for security reasons you would like to drop access from/to specific networks if incoming/outgoing packets are not encrypted. For example, if we have L2TP/IPsec setup we would want to drop non encrypted L2TP connection attempts.

There are several ways how to achieve this:

  • Using IPsec policy matcher in firewall;
  • Using generic IPsec policy with action set to drop and lower priority (can be used in Road Warrior setups where dynamic policies are generated);
  • By setting DSCP or priority in mangle and matching the same values in firewall after decapsulation.

IPsec policy matcher

Lets set up IPsec policy matcher to accept all packets that matched any of IPsec policies and drop the rest:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes

IPsec policy matcher takes two parameters direction,policy. We used incoming direction and IPsec policy. IPsec policy option allows us to inspect packets after decapsulation, so for example if we want to allow only gre encapsulated packet from specific source address and drop the rest we could set up following rules:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=gre src=address=192.168.33.1
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes

For L2TP rule set would be:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN \
    ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=udp dst-port=1701
add action=drop chain=input protocol=udp dst-port=1701 comment="drop l2tp" in-interface=WAN log=yes

Using generic IPsec policy

The trick of this method is to add default policy with action drop. Lets assume we are running L2TP/IPsec server on public 1.1.1.1 address and we want to drop all non encrypted L2TP:

/ip ipsec policy
add src-address=1.1.1.1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 sa-src-address=1.1.1.1 \
  protocol=udp src-port=1701 tunnel=yes action=discard

Now router will drop any L2TP unencrypted incoming traffic, but after successful L2TP/IPsec connection dynamic policy is created with higher priority than it is on default static rule and packets matching that dynamic rule can be forwarded.

Icon-note.png

Note: Policy order is important! For this to work, make sure the static drop policy is below the dynamic policies. Move it below the policy template if necessary.


[admin@rack2_10g1] /ip ipsec policy> print
Flags: T - template, X - disabled, D - dynamic, I - inactive, * - default
 0 T * group=default src-address=::/0 dst-address=::/0 protocol=all
       proposal=default template=yes

 1  D  src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=10.5.130.71/32
       dst-port=any protocol=udp action=encrypt level=require
       ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=no sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
       sa-dst-address=10.5.130.71

 2     src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0
       dst-port=any protocol=udp action=discard level=unique
       ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
       sa-dst-address=0.0.0.0 proposal=default manual-sa=none

Manually specifying local-address parameter under Peer configuration

Using different routing table

IPsec, as any other service in RouterOS, uses main routing table regardless what local-address parameter is used for Peer configuration. It is necessary to apply routing marks to both IKE and IPSec traffic.

Consider the following example. There are two default routes - one in main routing table and another in routing table "backup". It is necessary to use the backup link for IPsec site to site tunnel.

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print detail 
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit 
 0 A S  dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.155.107.1 gateway-status=10.155.107.1 reachable via  ether1 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10 routing-mark=backup 

 1 A S  dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=172.22.2.115 gateway-status=172.22.2.115 reachable via  ether2 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10 

 2 ADC  dst-address=10.155.107.0/25 pref-src=10.155.107.8 gateway=ether1 gateway-status=ether1 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

 3 ADC  dst-address=172.22.2.0/24 pref-src=172.22.2.114 gateway=ether2 gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

 4 ADC  dst-address=192.168.1.0/24 pref-src=192.168.1.1 gateway=bridge-local gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip firewall nat print  
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
 0    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix="" 

 1    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether2 log=no log-prefix="" 

IPsec peer and policy configurations are created using the backup link's source address, as well as NAT bypass rule for IPsec tunnel traffic.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=10.155.107.8 secret=test
/ip ipsec policy
add sa-src-address=10.155.107.8 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0

Currently, we see "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors in the log. It is because IPsec tries to reach the remote peer using the main routing table with incorrect source address. It is necessary to mark UDP/500, UDP/4500 and ipsec-esp packets using Mangle.

/ip firewall mangle
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 dst-port=500,4500 \
new-connection-mark=ipsec passthrough=yes protocol=udp
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 new-connection-mark=ipsec \
passthrough=yes protocol=ipsec-esp
add action=mark-routing chain=output connection-mark=ipsec new-routing-mark=backup passthrough=no

Using same routing table with multiple IP addresses

Consider the following example. There are multiple IP addresses from the same subnet on the public interface. Masquerade rule is configured on out-interface. It is necessary to use one of the IP addresses explicitly.

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip address print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
 #   ADDRESS            NETWORK         INTERFACE
 0   192.168.1.1/24     192.168.1.0     bridge-local
 1   172.22.2.1/24      172.22.2.0      ether1
 2   172.22.2.2/24      172.22.2.0      ether1
 3   172.22.2.3/24      172.22.2.0      ether1

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print 
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit 
 #      DST-ADDRESS        PREF-SRC        GATEWAY            DISTANCE
 1 A S  0.0.0.0/0                          172.22.2.115              1
 3 ADC  172.22.2.0/24      172.22.2.1      ether1                    0
 4 ADC  192.168.1.0/24     192.168.1.1     bridge-local              0

[admin@pair_r1] /ip firewall nat> print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
 0    chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix="" 

IPsec peer and policy configuration is created using one of the public IP addresses.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=172.22.2.3 secret=test
/ip ipsec policy
add sa-src-address=172.22.2.3 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0

Currently the phase 1 connection uses a different source address than we specified and "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors are shown in the logs. This is because masquerade is changing the source address of the connection to match pref-src address of the connected route. Solution is to exclude connections from the public IP address from being masqueraded.

/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat protocol=udp src-port=500,4500 place-before=0

Application Examples

Site to Site IPsec tunnel

Consider setup as illustrated below. Two remote office routers are connected to internet and office workstations are behind NAT. Each office has its own local subnet, 10.1.202.0/24 for Office1 and 10.1.101.0/24 for Office2. Both remote offices needs secure tunnel to local networks behind routers.

Site-to-site-ipsec-example.png

Site 1 configuration

Start off by configuring IPsec peer. It is enough to configure address, auth-method and secret parameters and leaving everything else as default. However, it is possible to set additional Peer properties as long as they are identical between both sites.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=192.168.80.1/32 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"

For the next steps, it is important that proposed authentication and encryption algorithms match on both routers. In this example we can use predefined "default" proposal. To verify Proposal settings:

[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec proposal print 
Flags: X - disabled, * - default 
 0  * name="default" auth-algorithms=sha1 
      enc-algorithms=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc lifetime=30m 
      pfs-group=modp1024 

It is possible to create a new proposal entry for our tunnel and specify it when creating policy, however in this example, the default proposal is used:

/ip ipsec policy
add src-address=10.1.202.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-port=any \
sa-src-address=192.168.90.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.80.1 \
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default

Site 2 configuration

Office 2 configuration is almost identical as Office 1 with proper IP address configuration.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=192.168.90.1/32 auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="test"

Continue with verifying that proposal parameters are matching between the sites:

[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec proposal print 
Flags: X - disabled, * - default 
 0  * name="default" auth-algorithms=sha1 
      enc-algorithms=aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc lifetime=30m 
      pfs-group=modp1024 

When it is done, create an IPsec policy:

/ip ipsec policy
add src-address=10.1.101.0/24 src-port=any dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-port=any \
sa-src-address=192.168.80.1 sa-dst-address=192.168.90.1 \
tunnel=yes action=encrypt proposal=default

At this point, the tunnel should be established and two Security Associations should be created on both routers:

/ip ipsec
remote-peers print
installed-sa print

NAT and Fasttrack Bypass

At this point if you try to send traffic over the IPsec tunnel, it will not work, packets will be lost. This is because both routers have NAT rules (masquerade) that is changing source address before packet is encrypted. Router is unable to encrypt the packet, because source address do not match address specified in policy configuration. For more information see IPsec packet flow example.

To fix this we need to set up NAT bypass rule.

Office 1 router:

/ip firewall nat
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
 src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24

Office 2 router:

/ip firewall nat
add chain=srcnat action=accept  place-before=0 \
 src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
Icon-note.png

Note: If you previously tried to establish an IP connection before NAT bypass rule was added, you have to clear connection table from existing connection or restart both routers.


It is very important that bypass rule is placed at the top of all other NAT rules.

Another issue is if you have Fasttrack enabled, packet bypasses IPsec policies. So we need to add accept rule before Fasttrack

/ip firewall filter
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
 src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24 connection-state=established,related
add chain=forward action=accept place-before=1
 src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24 connection-state=established,related

However this can add significant load to CPU if there is a fair amount of tunnels and significant traffic on each tunnel.

Solution is to use RAW firewall tables to bypass connection tracking, that way eliminating need of filter rules listed above and reducing load on CPU by approximately 30%.

/ip firewall raw
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.101.0/24 dst-address=10.1.202.0/24
add action=notrack chain=prerouting src-address=10.1.202.0/24 dst-address=10.1.101.0/24

Road Warrior setup with Mode Conf

Consider setup where worker need to access other co-workers (workstations) and local office server remotely. Office has two subnets:

  • 192.168.55.0/24 for workstations
  • 192.168.66.0/24 network that must not be reachable by RoadWarrior clients
  • 10.5.8.0/24 for servers

And access to those networks should be secure.

Ipsec-road-warrior.png

Typically in RoadWarrior setups as this it is impossible to know from which address user will connect, so we need to set up generate-policy parameter on the server side. However this leads to other problems, client can generate any policy and access any network in the office. Even set 0.0.0.0/0 and deny internet access to office workers.

Mode Conf, policy group and policy templates will allow us to overcome these problems.


IPsec Server Config

At first we need a pool from which RoadWarrior will will get an address. Typically in office you set up DHCP server for local workstations, the same DHCP pool can be used.

/ip pool
add name=ipsec-RW ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254

Next we need to set up what settings to send to the client using Mode Conf.

/ip ipsec mode-config
add address-pool=ipsec-RW name=RW-cfg split-include=\
    10.5.8.0/24,192.168.55.0/24

As you can see we specified from which pool to give out address and two allowed subnets.


Now to allow only specific source/destination address in generated policies we will use policy group and create policy templates:

/ip ipsec policy group
add name=RoadWarrior

/ip ipsec policy
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=10.5.8.0/24 \
    template=yes
add dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=RoadWarrior src-address=192.168.55.0/24 \
    template=yes


Now we just add xauth users and peer with enabled Mode Conf and policy group.

/ip ipsec user
add name=user1 password=123
add name=user2 password=234

/ip ipsec peer
add auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict mode-config=RW-cfg \
    policy-template-group=RoadWarrior secret=123 passive=yes

Apple iOS (iPhone/iPad) Client

For iOS devices to be able to connect, proposal changes are needed:

  • does not work with 3des encryption algorithm, aes-128/256 works
  • auth algorithm must be sha1
  • PFS group must be none
  • lifetime must be 8 hours

Example of valid proposal configuration for iOS devices:

/ip ipsec proposal
set default enc-algorithms=aes-128-cbc,aes-256-cbc lifetime=8h \
    pfs-group=none
Icon-note.png

Note: Iphone does not work with split-include 0.0.0.0/0. If you set 0.0.0.0/0 for older clients traffic will not be sent over the tunnel, for newer ios clients tunnel will not be established.


Android Client Notes

Android devices are trying to add policy with destination 0.0.0.0/0, so you have to make sure that correct policy template is added.

In our case we need to add:

/ip ipsec policy
add group=RoadWarrior dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 src-address=0.0.0.0/0 template=yes

RouterOS Client Config

/ip ipsec peer
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth generate-policy=port-strict secret=123 \
     xauth-login=user1 xauth-password=123 mode-config=request-only

Shrew Client Config

n:version:2
n:network-ike-port:500
n:network-mtu-size:1380
n:network-natt-port:4500
n:network-natt-rate:15
n:network-frag-size:540
n:network-dpd-enable:0
n:client-banner-enable:0
n:network-notify-enable:0
n:client-wins-used:0
n:client-wins-auto:1
n:client-dns-used:1
n:client-dns-auto:0
n:client-splitdns-used:1
n:client-splitdns-auto:0
n:phase1-dhgroup:2
n:phase1-life-secs:86400
n:phase1-life-kbytes:0
n:vendor-chkpt-enable:0
n:phase2-life-secs:300
n:phase2-life-kbytes:0
n:policy-nailed:1
n:policy-list-auto:1
n:client-addr-auto:1
s:network-host:2.2.2.2
s:client-auto-mode:pull
s:client-iface:virtual
s:network-natt-mode:disable
s:network-frag-mode:disable
s:auth-method:mutual-psk-xauth
s:ident-client-type:address
s:ident-server-type:address
b:auth-mutual-psk:MTIz
s:phase1-exchange:main
s:phase1-cipher:3des
s:phase1-hash:md5
s:phase2-transform:esp-3des
s:phase2-hmac:sha1
s:ipcomp-transform:disabled
n:phase2-pfsgroup:2
s:policy-level:require

Road Warrior setup using IKEv2 with RSA authentication

This example explains how to establish a secure IPsec connection between a device connected to the Internet (RoadWarrior client) and a device running RouterOS acting as a server.

Ipsec-road-warrior.png


RouterOS server configuration

Before configuring IPsec, it is required to set up certificates. It is possible to use a separate Certificate Authority for certificate management, however in this example, self signed certificates are generated in RouterOS System/Certificates menu. Some certificate requirements should be met to connect various devices to the server:

  • Common name should contain IP or DNS name of the server;
  • SAN (subject alternative name) should have IP or DNS of the server;
  • EKU (extended key usage) tls-server and tls-client are required.

Considering all requirements above, generate CA and server certificates:

/certificate
add common-name=ca name=ca
sign ca ca-crl-host=2.2.2.2
add common-name=2.2.2.2 subject-alt-name=IP:2.2.2.2 key-usage=tls-server name=server1
sign server1 ca=ca


Now that valid certificates are created on the router, IPsec can be configured. Mode config is used for address distribution from IP pool and DNS configuration. Since that the policy template must be adjusted to allow only specific network policies, it is advised to create a separate policy group and template. For compatibility, a new proposal is created with PFS group set to none.

/ip pool add name=rw-pool ranges=192.168.77.2-192.168.77.254
/ip ipsec proposal
add name=rw-proposal pfs-group=none
/ip ipsec mode-conf
add name=rw-conf system-dns=yes address-pool=rw-pool address-prefix=32
/ip ipsec policy
group add name=rw-policies
add template=yes dst-address=192.168.77.0/24 group=rw-policies proposal=rw-proposal

Lastly, create a new IPsec peer configuration.

/ip ipsec peer
add auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=server1 generate-policy=port-strict \
  mode-config=rw-conf passive=yes remote-certificate=none exchange-mode=ike2 \
  policy-template-group=rw-policies
Icon-note.png

Note: Windows uses point-to-point links so specifying any prefix other than 32 in Mode config settings will do nothing


Icon-note.png

Note: Currently RouterOS does not support any of EAP authentication methods


Icon-note.png

Note: Most commonly available IKEv2 client software does not support Mode config split-network option


RouterOS client configuration

Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.

/certificate
add common-name=RouterOS_client name=RouterOS_client key-usage=tls-client
sign RouterOS_client ca=ca 
export-certificate RouterOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12 

A file named cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12 is now located in the routers Files section. Transfer the file to the RouterOS client device and import it.

/certificate import file-name=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12 passphrase=1234567890

There should now be the self-signed CA certificate and the client certificate in Certificate menu. Usually the client certificate is imported first, but lets double check which is it.

/put [/certificate get [find common-name=RouterOS_client] name]  

cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0 is the client certificate. Now we can create the peer configuration.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=2.2.2.2 auth-method=rsa-signature certificate=cert_export_RouterOS_client.p12_0 mode-config=request-only exchange-mode=ike2 generate-policy=port-strict

Verify that the connection is successfully established.

/ip ipsec
remote-peers print
installed-sa print

Windows client configuration

Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.

/certificate
add common-name=Windows_client name=Windows_client key-usage=tls-client
sign Windows_client ca=ca
export-certificate Windows_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12

A file named cert_export_Windows_client.p12 is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the Windows computer. Install the certificate by following the instructions. Make sure you select Local Machine store location.

Ike2v2 cert win.png

You can now proceed to Network and Internet settings -> VPN and add a new configuration. Fill in the Connection name, Server name or address parameters. Select IKEv2 under VPN type. When it is done, it is necessary to select "Use machine certificates". This can be done in Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Properties menu for the VPN connection. The setting is located under Security tab.

Ike2v2 conf win.png

Currently Windows 10 is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:

Phase 1
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmDH Group
SHA13DESmodp1024
SHA2563DESmodp1024
SHA1AES-128-CBCmodp1024
SHA256AES-128-CBCmodp1024
SHA1AES-192-CBCmodp1024
SHA256AES-192-CBCmodp1024
SHA1AES-256-CBCmodp1024
SHA256AES-256-CBCmodp1024
SHA1AES-128-GCMmodp1024
SHA256AES-128-GCMmodp1024
SHA1AES-256-GCMmodp1024
SHA256AES-256-GCMmodp1024


Phase 2
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmPFS Group
SHA1AES-256-CBCnone
SHA1AES-128-CBCnone
SHA13DESnone
SHA1DESnone
SHA1nonenone


Icon-warn.png

Warning: Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.


Android Client Notes

Native Android client does not support ikev2 at the moment. StrongSwan client from Play Store can be used to connect to ikev2 server. StrongSwan client the same as windows accept certificates and keys in pkcs12 format. So external tool is needed to convert exported .crt and .key files to .pfx and then import .pfx file.

After its imported you will see CA and Client cert in user certificates:

Android-cert-import.png


Now you can pick them in profile configuration.

Android-cl-cert.png

Ca certificate is selected automatically as shown in screenshot below, but if for some reason you need to specify exact CA certificate, then unselect "Select automatically" and pick imported CA from the list.

Android-ca-cert.png

When connecting Android StrongSwan clients, make sure that on RouterOS proposal settings DH group is disabled, otherwise phase2 will fail.

macOS client configuration

Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export the client certificate in PKCS12 format.

/certificate
add common-name=macOS_client name=macOS_client key-usage=tls-client
sign macOS_client ca=ca
export-certificate macOS_client export-passphrase=1234567890 type=pkcs12

A file named cert_export_macOS_client.p12 is now located in the routers Files section. Download and open the certificate file on the macOS computer and install the certificate in "System" keychain. It is necessary to mark the CA certificate as trusted manually since it is self-signed. Locate the certificate macOS Keychain Access app under System tab and mark it as Always Trust.

Ikev2 cert macos.png

You can now proceed to System Preferences -> Network and add a new configuration by clicking the + button. Select Interface: VPN, VPN Type: IKEv2 and name your connection. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank. Under Authentication Settings select None and choose the client certificate. You can now test the connectivity.

Ikev2 conf macos.png

Currently macOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:

Phase 1
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmDH Group
SHA256AES-256-CBCmodp2048
SHA256AES-256-CBCecp256
SHA256AES-256-CBCmodp1536
SHA1AES-128-CBCmodp1024
SHA13DESmodp1024


Phase 2
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmPFS Group
SHA256AES-256-CBCnone
SHA1AES-128-CBCnone
SHA13DESnone


Icon-warn.png

Warning: Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.


iOS client configuration

Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA.

/certificate
add common-name=iOS_client name=iOS_client key-usage=tls-client
sign iOS_client ca=ca

When installing certificates, check which formats iOS supports, client certificate can not be imported from CRT and KEY files, but you can use PKCS12 format. Typically PKCS12 bundle contains also CA certificate, but iOS does not install this CA, so self-signed CA certificate must be installed separately using PEM format.

/certificate
export-certificate ca type=pem
export-certificate iOS_client type=pkcs12 export-passphrase=1234567890

Two files are now located in the routers Files section: cert_export_ca.crt and cert_export_iOS_client.p12. Download and open these files on the iOS device and install both certificates by following the instructions. It is necessary to mark the self-signed CA certificate as trusted on the iOS device. This can be done in Settings -> General -> About -> Certificate Trust Settings menu. When it is done, check whether both certificates are marked as "verified" under Settings -> General -> Profiles menu.

Ikev2 cert ios.PNG


You can now proceed to Settings -> General -> VPN menu and add a new configuration. Remote ID must be set equal to common-name or subjAltName of server's certificate. Local ID can be left blank.

Ikev2 conf ios.PNG


Currently iOS is compatible with the following Phase 1 (Peer) and Phase 2 (Proposal) proposal sets:

Phase 1
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmDH Group
SHA256AES-256-CBCmodp2048
SHA256AES-256-CBCecp256
SHA256AES-256-CBCmodp1536
SHA1AES-128-CBCmodp1024
SHA13DESmodp1024


Phase 2
Hash AlgorithmEncryption AlgorithmPFS Group
SHA256AES-256-CBCnone
SHA1AES-128-CBCnone
SHA13DESnone


Icon-warn.png

Warning: Phase 2 (/ip ipsec proposal) PFS Group must be set to 'none' for rekeying to work properly.


Icon-note.png

Note: If you are connected to the VPN over WiFi, the iOS device can go into sleep mode and disconnect from the network.


strongSwan client configuration

Generate a new certificate for the client and sign it with previously created CA. Export both client and CA certificates in PEM format.

/certificate
add common-name=strongSwan_client name=strongSwan_client key-usage=tls-client
sign strongSwan_client ca=ca
export-certificate ca
export-certificate strongSwan_client export-passphrase=1234567890

Three files are now located in the routers Files section: cert_export_ca.crt, cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt and cert_export_strongSwan_client.key. strongSwan accepts either PEM or DER format certificates and it is possible to just change the certificate extensions. The private key must be in PKCS1 format - it will need to be converted. We can do this with OpenSSL. Rename the certificates for a more convenient look.

$ mv cert_export_ca.crt ca.pem
$ mv cert_export_strongSwan_client.crt strongSwan_client.pem
$ openssl rsa -in cert_export_strongSwan_client.key -out strongSwan_clientKey.pem

Download the certificates and the key to strongSwan client device and move the files to their appropriate directory. By default /etc/ipsec.d/ is used for certificate storage.

$ mv ca.pem /etc/ipsec.d/cacerts/ca.pem
$ mv strongSwan_client.pem /etc/ipsec.d/certs/strongSwan_client.pem
$ mv strongSwan_clientKey.pem /etc/ipsec.d/private/strongSwan_client.pem

Add a new connection to /etc/ipsec.conf file

conn "ikev2"
        keyexchange=ikev2
        ike=aes128-sha1-modp2048
        esp=aes128-sha1
        leftsourceip=%modeconfig
        leftcert=strongSwan_client.pem
        leftfirewall=yes
        right=2.2.2.2
        rightid="CN=2.2.2.2"
        rightsubnet=0.0.0.0/0
        auto=add

Add exported passphrase for the private key to /etc/ipsec.secrets file

: RSA strongSwan_client.pem "1234567890"

You can now restart (or start) the ipsec daemon and initialize the connection

$ ipsec restart
$ ipsec up ikev2

Basic L2TP/IPsec setup

This example demonstrates how to easily setup L2TP/IPsec server on RouterOS for road warrior connections (works with Windows, Android, iOS, macOS and other vendor L2TP/IPsec implementations).

RouterOS server configuration

First step is to enable L2TP server:

/interface l2tp-server server
set enabled=yes use-ipsec=required ipsec-secret=mySecret default-profile=default

use-ipsec is set to required to make sure that only IPsec encapsulated L2TP connections are accepted.

Now what it does is enables L2TP server and creates dynamic IPsec peer with specified secret.

[admin@MikroTik] /ip ipsec peer> print 
 0  D address=0.0.0.0/0 local-address=0.0.0.0 passive=yes port=500 
      auth-method=pre-shared-key secret="123" generate-policy=port-strict 
      exchange-mode=main-l2tp send-initial-contact=yes nat-traversal=yes 
      hash-algorithm=sha1 enc-algorithm=3des,aes-128,aes-192,aes-256 
      dh-group=modp1024 lifetime=1d dpd-interval=2m dpd-maximum-failures=5 
Icon-note.png

Note: Care must be taken if static IPsec peer configuration exists.


Next step is to create VPN pool and add some users.

/ip pool add name=vpn-pool range=192.168.99.2-192.168.99.100

/ppp profile
set default local-address=192.168.99.1 remote-address=vpn-pool

/ppp secret
add name=user1 password=123
add name=user2 password=234

Now router is ready to accept L2TP/IPsec client connections.

RouterOS client configuration

For RouterOS to work as L2TP/IPsec client, it is as simple as adding a new L2TP client.

/interface l2tp-client
add connect-to=1.1.1.1 disabled=no ipsec-secret=mySecret name=l2tp-out1 \
    password=123 use-ipsec=yes user=user1

It will automatically create dynamic IPsec peer and policy configuration.

Connecting with Shrew Client and allowing only Encrypted traffic


Troubleshooting/FAQ

Phase 1 Failed to get valid proposal
[admin@MikroTik] /log> print
(..)
17:12:32 ipsec,error no suitable proposal found. 
17:12:32 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 failed to get valid proposal. 
17:12:32 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 failed to pre-process ph1 packet (side: 1, status 1). 
17:12:32 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 phase1 negotiation failed. 
(..)
Peers are unable to negotiate encryption parameters causing the connection to drop. To solve this issue, enable IPSec debug logs and find out which parameters are proposed by the remote peer and adjust configuration accordingly.
[admin@MikroTik] /system logging> add topics=ipsec,!debug
[admin@MikroTik] /log> print
(..)
17:21:08 ipsec rejected hashtype: DB(prop#1:trns#1):Peer(prop#1:trns#1) = MD5:SHA 
17:21:08 ipsec rejected enctype: DB(prop#1:trns#2):Peer(prop#1:trns#1) = 3DES-CBC:AES-CBC 
17:21:08 ipsec rejected hashtype: DB(prop#1:trns#2):Peer(prop#1:trns#1) = MD5:SHA 
17:21:08 ipsec rejected enctype: DB(prop#1:trns#1):Peer(prop#1:trns#2) = AES-CBC:3DES-CBC 
17:21:08 ipsec rejected hashtype: DB(prop#1:trns#1):Peer(prop#1:trns#2) = MD5:SHA 
17:21:08 ipsec rejected hashtype: DB(prop#1:trns#2):Peer(prop#1:trns#2) = MD5:SHA 
17:21:08 ipsec,error no suitable proposal found. 
17:21:08 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 failed to get valid proposal. 
17:21:08 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 failed to pre-process ph1 packet (side: 1, status 1). 
17:21:08 ipsec,error 10.5.107.112 phase1 negotiation failed. 
(..)
In this example, remote end requires SHA1 to be used as hash algorithm, but MD5 is configured on local router. Setting before the column symbol (:) is configured on the local side, parameter after the column symbol (:) is configured on the remote side.
"phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" what does it mean?
There are communication problems between the peers. Possible causes include - misconfigured Phase 1 IP addresses; firewall blocking UDP ports 500 and 4500; NAT between peers not properly translating IPsec negotiation packets.
This error message can also appear when local-address parameter is not used properly. More information available here.
Random packet drops or connections over the tunnel is very slow, enabling packet sniffer/torch fixes the problem
Problem is that before encapsulation packets are sent to Fasttrack/FastPath, thus bypassing IPsec policy checking.
Solution is to exclude traffic that need to be encapsulated/decaplsulated from Fasttrack, see configuration example here.
How to enable ike2?
For basic configuration enabling ike2 is very simple, just change exchange-mode in peer settings to ike2.
fatal NO-PROPOSAL-CHOSEN notify messsage
Remote peer sent notify that it cannot accept proposed algorithms, to find exact cause of the problem, look at remote peers debug logs or configuration and verify that both client and server have the same set of algorithms.
I can ping only in one direction.
Typical problem in such cases is strict firewall, firewall rules allow to create new connections only in one direction. Solution is to recheck firewall rules, or explicitly accept all traffic that should be encapsulated/decapsulated.
Can I allow only encrypted traffic?
Yes, you can, see examples here.
I enable IKEv2 REAUTH on StrongSwan and got error 'initiator did not reauthenticate as requested'
RouterOS does not support rfc4478, reauth must be disabled on StrongSwan.

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