Difference between revisions of "Manual:Interface/Bridge"

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     <td><var><b>arp-gratuitous</b></var> (<em>yes | no | auto; default: auto</em>)</td>
 
     <td><var><b>arp-gratuitous</b></var> (<em>yes | no | auto; default: auto</em>)</td>
 
     <td></td>
 
     <td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
    <td><var><b>arp-hardware-type</b></var> (<em>integer; default: 1</em>)</td>
 +
    <td>ARP hardware type. This normally Ethernet (Type 1)</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
    <td><var><b>arp-opcode</b></var> (<em>arp-nak | drarp-error | drarp-reply | drarp-request | inarp-reply | inarp-request | reply | reply-reverse | request | request-reverse</em>)</td>
 +
    <td>
 +
ARP opcode (packet type)
 +
*'''arp-nak''' - negative ARP reply (rarely used, mostly in ATM networks)
 +
*'''drarp-error''' - Dynamic RARP error code, saying that an IP address for the given MAC address can not be allocated
 +
*'''drarp-reply''' - Dynamic RARP reply, with a temporaty IP address assignment for a host
 +
*'''drarp-request''' - Dynamic RARP request to assign a temporary IP address for the given MAC address
 +
*'''inarp-reply''' -
 +
*'''inarp-request''' -
 +
*'''reply''' - standard ARP reply with a MAC address
 +
*'''reply-reverse''' - reverse ARP (RARP) reply with an IP address assigned
 +
*'''request''' - standard ARP request to a known IP address to find out unknown MAC address
 +
*'''request-reverse''' - reverse ARP (RARP) request to a known MAC address to find out unknown IP address (intended to be used by hosts to find out their own IP address, similarly to DHCP service)
 +
  </td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
    <td><var><b>arp-packet-type</b></var> (<em>integer</em>)</td>
 +
    <td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
    <td><var><b>arp-src-address</b></var> (<em>IP address; default: </em>)</td>
 +
    <td>ARP source address</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
    <td><var><b>arp-src-mac-address</b></var> (<em>MAC address; default: </em>)</td>
 +
    <td>ARP source MAC address</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>

Revision as of 10:55, 3 February 2010

Version.png

Applies to RouterOS: v3.x, v4.x

(needs editing)

Summary

Sub-menu: /interface bridge

Standards: IEEE801.1D


Ethernet-like networks (Ethernet, Ethernet over IP, IEEE802.11 in ap-bridge or bridge mode, WDS, VLAN) can be connected together using MAC bridges. The bridge feature allows the interconnection of hosts connected to separate LANs (using EoIP, geographically distributed networks can be bridged as well if any kind of IP network interconnection exists between them) as if they were attached to a single LAN. As bridges are transparent, they do not appear in traceroute list, and no utility can make a distinction between a host working in one LAN and a host working in another LAN if these LANs are bridged (depending on the way the LANs are interconnected, latency and data rate between hosts may vary).

Network loops may emerge (intentionally or not) in complex topologies. Without any special treatment, loops would prevent network from functioning normally, as they would lead to avalanche-like packet multiplication. Each bridge runs an algorithm which calculates how the loop can be prevented. STP and RSTP allows bridges to communicate with each other, so they can negotiate a loop free topology. All other alternative connections that would otherwise form loops, are put to standby, so that should the main connection fail, another connection could take its place. This algorithm exchange configuration messages (BPDU - Bridge Protocol Data Unit) periodically, so that all bridges would be updated with the newest information about changes in network topology. STP selects root bridge which is responosible for network reconfiguration, such as blocking and opening ports of the other bridges. The root bridge is the bridge with lowest bridge ID.

Bridge Interface Setup

Sub-menu: /interface bridge

To combine a number of networks into one bridge, a bridge interface should be created (later, all the desired interfaces should be set up as its ports). One MAC address will be assigned to all the bridged interfaces (the smallest MAC address will be chosen automatically).

Properties

Property Description
admin-mac (MAC address; Default: )
ageing-time (time; Default: 00:05:00) How long a host information will be kept in the bridge database
arp (disabled | enabled | proxy-arp | reply-only; Default: enabled) Address Resolution Protocol setting
auto-mac (yes | no; Default: yes)
forward-delay (time; Default: 00:00:15) Time which is spent during the initialization phase of the bridge interface (i.e., after router startup or enabling the interface) in listening/learning state before the bridge will start functioning normally
l2mtu (integer; read-only) Layer2 Maximum transmission unit. Read more>>
max-message-age (time; Default: 00:00:20) How long to remember Hello messages received from other bridges
mtu (integer; Default: 1500) Maximum Transmission Unit
name (text; Default: bridgeN) Name of the bridge interface
priority (integer: 0..65535; Default: 32768) Bridge interface priority. The priority argument is used by Spanning Tree Protocol to determine, which port remains enabled if at least two ports form a loop
protocol-mode (none | rstp | stp; Default: none)
transmit-hold-count (integer: 1..10; Default: 6)

Example

To add and enable a bridge interface that will forward all the protocols:

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge> add 
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge> print 
Flags: X - disabled, R - running 
 0  R name="bridge1" mtu=1500 l2mtu=65535 arp=enabled 
      mac-address=00:00:00:00:00:00 protocol-mode=none priority=0x8000 
      auto-mac=yes admin-mac=00:00:00:00:00:00 max-message-age=20s 
      forward-delay=15s transmit-hold-count=6 ageing-time=5m 
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge>

Bridge Settings

Sub-menu: /interface bridge settings

Property Description
use-ip-firewall (yes | no; Default: no)
use-ip-firewall-for-pppoe (yes | no; Default: no)
use-ip-firewall-for-vlan (yes | no; Default: no)

Port Settings

Sub-menu: /interface bridge port

Port submenu is used to enslave interfaces in a particular bridge interface.

Property Description
bridge (name; Default: none) The bridge interface the respective interface is grouped in
edge (auto | no | no-discover | yes | yes-discover; Default: auto)
external-fdb (auto | no | yes; Default: auto)
horizon (none | integer 0..429496729; Default: none)
interface (name; Default: none) Name of the interface
path-cost (integer: 0..65535; Default: 10) Path cost to the interface, used by STP to determine the "best" path
point-to-point (auto | no | yes; Default: auto)
priority (integer: 0..255; Default: 128) The priority of the interface in comparison with other going to the same subnet

Example

To group ether1 and ether2 in the already created bridge1 bridge

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port> add bridge=bridge1 interface=ether1
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port> add bridge=bridge1 interface=ether2
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port> print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - inactive, D - dynamic 
 #    INTERFACE              BRIDGE              PRIORITY PATH-COST  HORIZON   
 0    ether1                 bridge1             0x80     10         none      
 1    ether2                 bridge1             0x80     10         none      
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port> 

Bridge Monitoring

Sub-menu: /interface bridge monitor

Used to monitor the current status of a bridge.

Property Description
current-mac-address (MAC address) Current MAC address of the bridge
designated-port-count (integer)
port-count (integer)
root-bridge (yes | no)
root-bridge-id (text) The root bridge ID, which is in form of bridge-priority.bridge-MAC-address
root-path-cost (integer) The total cost of the path to the root-bridge
root-port (name) Port to which the root bridge is connected to
state (enabled | disabled)

Example

To monitor a bridge:

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge> monitor bridge1 
                  state: enabled
    current-mac-address: 00:0C:42:52:2E:CE
            root-bridge: yes
         root-bridge-id: 0x8000.00:00:00:00:00:00
         root-path-cost: 0
              root-port: none
             port-count: 2
  designated-port-count: 0

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge>

Bridge Port Monitoring

Sub-menu: /interface bridge port monitor

Statistics of an interface that belongs to a bridge.

Property Description
edge-port (yes | no)
edge-port-discovery (yes | no)
external-fdb (yes | no)
forwarding (yes | no)
learning (yes | no)
point-to-point-port (yes | no)
port-number (integer)
role ()
sending-rstp (yes | no)
status ()

Example

To monitor a bridge port:

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port> monitor 0     
               status: in-bridge
          port-number: 1
                 role: designated-port
            edge-port: no
  edge-port-discovery: yes
  point-to-point-port: no
         external-fdb: no
         sending-rstp: no
             learning: yes
           forwarding: yes

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge port>

Bridge Host Monitoring

Sub-menu: /interface bridge host

Property Description
age (read-only: time) The time since the last packet was received from the host
bridge (read-only: name) The bridge the entry belongs to
external-fdb (read-only: flag)
local (read-only: flag) Whether the host entry is of the bridge itself (that way all local interfaces are shown)
mac-address (read-only: MAC address) Host's MAC address
on-interface (read-only: name) Which of the bridged interfaces the host is connected to

Example

To get the active host table:

[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge host> print 
Flags: L - local, E - external-fdb 
  BRIDGE           MAC-ADDRESS       ON-INTERFACE          AGE                 
  bridge1          00:00:00:00:00:01 ether2                3s                  
  bridge1          00:01:29:FF:1D:CC ether2                0s                  
L bridge1          00:0C:42:52:2E:CF ether2                0s                  
  bridge1          00:0C:42:52:2E:D0 ether2                3s                  
  bridge1          00:0C:42:5C:A5:AE ether2                0s                  
[admin@MikroTik] /interface bridge host>

Bridge Firewall

Sub-menu: /interface bridge filter, /interface bridge nat

The bridge firewall implements packet filtering and thereby provides security functions that are used to manage data flow to, from and through bridge.

Packet flow diagram shows how packets are processed through router. It is possible to force bridge traffic to go through /ip firewall filter rules (see: Bridge Settings)

There are two bridge firewall tables:

  • filter - bridge firewall with three predefined chains:
    • input - filters packets, which destination is the bridge (including those packets that will be routed, as they are anyway destined to the bridge MAC address)
    • output - filters packets, which come from the bridge (including those packets that has been routed normally)
    • forward - filters packets, which are to be bridged (note: this chain is not applied to the packets that should be routed through the router, just to those that are traversing between the ports of the same bridge)
  • nat - bridge network address translation provides ways for changing source/destination MAC addresses of the packets traversing a bridge. Has two built-in chains:
    • srcnat - used for "hiding" a host or a network behind a different MAC address. This chain is applied to the packets leaving the router through a bridged interface
    • dstnat - used for redirecting some pakets to another destinations

You can put packet marks in bridge firewall (filter and NAT), which are the same as the packet marks in IP firewall put by mangle. So packet marks put by bridge firewall can be used in IP firewall, and vice versa.

General bridge firewall properties are described in this section. Some parameters that differ between nat and filter rules are described in further sections.

Properties

Property Description
802.3-sap (integer) DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) and SSAP (Source Service Access Point) are 2 one byte fields, which identify the network protocol entities which use the link layer service. These bytes are always equal. Two hexadecimal digits may be specified here to match an SAP byte
802.3-type (integer) Ethernet protocol type, placed after the IEEE 802.2 frame header. Works only if 802.3-sap is 0xAA (SNAP - Sub-Network Attachment Point header). For example, AppleTalk can be indicated by SAP code of 0xAA followed by a SNAP type code of 0x809B
arp-dst-address (IP address; default: ) ARP destination address
arp-dst-mac-address (MAC address; default: ) ARP destination MAC address
arp-gratuitous (yes | no | auto; default: auto)
arp-hardware-type (integer; default: 1) ARP hardware type. This normally Ethernet (Type 1)
arp-opcode (arp-nak | drarp-error | drarp-reply | drarp-request | inarp-reply | inarp-request | reply | reply-reverse | request | request-reverse)

ARP opcode (packet type)

  • arp-nak - negative ARP reply (rarely used, mostly in ATM networks)
  • drarp-error - Dynamic RARP error code, saying that an IP address for the given MAC address can not be allocated
  • drarp-reply - Dynamic RARP reply, with a temporaty IP address assignment for a host
  • drarp-request - Dynamic RARP request to assign a temporary IP address for the given MAC address
  • inarp-reply -
  • inarp-request -
  • reply - standard ARP reply with a MAC address
  • reply-reverse - reverse ARP (RARP) reply with an IP address assigned
  • request - standard ARP request to a known IP address to find out unknown MAC address
  • request-reverse - reverse ARP (RARP) request to a known MAC address to find out unknown IP address (intended to be used by hosts to find out their own IP address, similarly to DHCP service)
arp-packet-type (integer)
arp-src-address (IP address; default: ) ARP source address
arp-src-mac-address (MAC address; default: ) ARP source MAC address