Difference between revisions of "Manual:Queue"

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* '''queued-packets''' (read-only/read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
 
* '''queued-packets''' (read-only/read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
 
* '''dropped''' (read-only/read-only) : number of dropped packets
 
* '''dropped''' (read-only/read-only) : number of dropped packets
* '''overlimits''' (read-only/read-only) :  
+
* '''borrows''' (read-only/read-only) : packets that passed queue over its "limit-at" value (and was unused and taken away from other queues)
* '''lends''' (read-only/read-only) :  
+
* '''lends''' (read-only/read-only) : packets that passed queue below its "limit-at" value OR if queue is a parent  - sum of all child borrowed packets
* '''borrows''' (read-only/read-only) :
 
 
* '''pcq-queues''' (read-only/read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ
 
* '''pcq-queues''' (read-only/read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ
  
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* '''total-queued-packets''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''queued-packets'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-queued-packets''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''queued-packets'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-dropped''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''dropped'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-dropped''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''dropped'' only for global-total queue  
* '''total-overlimits''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''overlimits'' only for global-total queue
 
 
* '''total-lends''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''lends'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-lends''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''lends'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-borrows''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''borrows'' only for global-total queue  
 
* '''total-borrows''' (read-only):  corresponds to ''borrows'' only for global-total queue  
Line 130: Line 128:
 
===Statistics===
 
===Statistics===
  
* '''rate''' (read-only/read-only) : average queue passing data rate in bytes per second
+
* '''rate''' (read-only) : average queue passing data rate in bytes per second
* '''packet-rate''' (read-only/read-only) : average queue passing data rate in packets per second
+
* '''packet-rate''' (read-only) : average queue passing data rate in packets per second
* '''bytes''' (read-only/read-only) : number of bytes processed by this queue
+
* '''bytes''' (read-only) : number of bytes processed by this queue
* '''packets''' (read-only/read-only) : number of packets processed by this queue
+
* '''packets''' (read-only) : number of packets processed by this queue
* '''queued-bytes''' (read-only/read-only) : number of bytes waiting in the queue
+
* '''queued-bytes''' (read-only) : number of bytes waiting in the queue
* '''queued-packets''' (read-only/read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
+
* '''queued-packets''' (read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
* '''dropped''' (read-only/read-only) : number of dropped packets
+
* '''dropped''' (read-only) : number of dropped packets
* '''overlimits''' (read-only/read-only) :
+
* '''borrows''' (read-only) : packets that passed queue over its "limit-at" value (and was unused and taken away from other queues)
* '''lends''' (read-only/read-only) :  
+
* '''lends''' (read-only) : packets that passed queue below its "limit-at" value OR if queue is a parent  - sum of all child borrowed packets
* '''borrows''' (read-only/read-only) :
+
* '''pcq-queues''' (read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ
* '''pcq-queues''' (read-only/read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ
 
  
  
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Submenu level: '''/queue type'''
 
Submenu level: '''/queue type'''
  
* '''name'''  (Text) : Unique queue identifier that can be used in simple queues and queue tree as queue type
+
* '''name'''  (Text) : Unique queue identifier that can be used in simple queues and queue tree as value of '''queue''' option
 
* '''kind''' (bfifo | pcq | pfifo | red | sfq) : kind of particular queue type
 
* '''kind''' (bfifo | pcq | pfifo | red | sfq) : kind of particular queue type
  
Line 165: Line 162:
  
 
===RED===
 
===RED===
Random Early Drop is a queuing mechanism which tries to avoid network congestion by controlling the average queue size. When the average queue size reaches '''red-min-threshold''', RED starts to drop packets randomly with linearly increasing probability as the average queue size grows up until the average queue size reaches the '''red-max-threshold''''''Bold text'''. The effective queue size at any moment could be higher than the '''red-max-threshold''' as the probability does not grow very fast, so it is possible to specify a hard limit for the queue size. When the average queue size reaches red-max-threshold or becomes larger, all further packets are dropped until the average queue size does not drop below this values (at which point probabilistic calculations will be activated again).
 
  
* '''red-avg-packet''' (number) : Used by RED for average queue size calculations (packet to byte translation)
+
 
 +
Random Early Drop is a queuing mechanism which tries to avoid network congestion by controlling the average queue size. When the average queue size reaches '''red-min-threshold''', RED starts to drop packets randomly with linearly increasing probability as the average queue size grows up until the average queue size reaches the '''red-max-threshold'''. The effective queue size at any moment could be higher than the '''red-max-threshold''' as the probability does not grow very fast, so it is possible to specify a hard limit for the queue size. When the average queue size reaches red-max-threshold or becomes larger, all further packets are dropped until the average queue size does not drop below this values (at which point probabilistic calculations will be activated again).
 +
 
 +
* '''red-avg-packet''' (number) : Used by RED for average queue size calculations (for packet to byte translation)
 
* '''red-burst''' (number) : Number of packets allowed for bursts of packets when there are no packets in the queue
 
* '''red-burst''' (number) : Number of packets allowed for bursts of packets when there are no packets in the queue
* '''red-limit'''(number) : RED queue limit in bytes
+
* '''red-limit'''(number) : RED queue limit in packets
 
* '''red-max-threshold''' (number) : The average queue size at which packet marking probability is the highest
 
* '''red-max-threshold''' (number) : The average queue size at which packet marking probability is the highest
 
* '''red-min-threshold''' (number) : Average queue size in bytes
 
* '''red-min-threshold''' (number) : Average queue size in bytes
Line 176: Line 175:
 
===SFQ===
 
===SFQ===
  
* '''sfq-allot''' (number) : How often to change hash function
+
Stochastic Fairness Queuing (SFQ) is ensured by hashing and round-robin algorithms. A traffic flow may be uniquely identified by a 4 options(src-address, dst-address, src-port and dst-port), so these parameters are used by SFQ hashing algorithm to classify packets into one of 1024 possible subqueues. Then round-robin algorithm will start to distribute available bandwidth to all subqueues, on each round giving '''sfq-allot''' bytes of traffic. The whole SFQ queue can contain 128 packets and there are 1024 subqueues available.
 +
 
 +
* '''sfq-allot''' (number) : How often hash function must be refreshed
 
* '''sfq-perturb''' (time) : Amount of data in bytes that can be sent in one round-robin round
 
* '''sfq-perturb''' (time) : Amount of data in bytes that can be sent in one round-robin round
  
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===PCQ===
 
===PCQ===
  
* '''pcq-classifier''' (dst-address | dst-port | src-address | src-port; default: "") : The classifier of grouping traffic flow
+
Per Connection Queuing (PCQ) is a similar to SFQ, but it has addicional features.
* '''pcq-limit''' (number) : PCQ queue limit
+
 
* '''pcq-rate''' (number) : Maximal data rate assigned to one group (bits/s)
+
It is possible to choose flow identifiers (from dst-address | dst-port | src-address | src-port). For example if you classify flows by src-address on local interface (interface with your clients), each PCQ subqueue will be one particular client's upload.
* '''pcq-total-limit''' (number) : Number of packets that can hold the whole PCQ queue
+
 
 +
It is possible to assign speed limitation to subqueues with  '''pcq-rate''' option. If '''pcq-rate'''=0 subqueues will divide available traffic equally.
  
  
 +
* '''pcq-classifier''' (dst-address | dst-port | src-address | src-port; default: "")  : selection of subqueue identifiers
 +
* '''pcq-rate''' (number) : maximal available data rate of each subqueue
 +
* '''pcq-limit''' (number) : queue size of one subqueue in packets
 +
* '''pcq-total-limit''' (number) : queue size of all PCQ in packets
  
  
 
==Interface Queue==
 
==Interface Queue==
  
* '''interface'''
+
* '''interface'''(''SOMETHING'') : name of interface
* '''queue''' (''something'') :  
+
* '''queue''' (''something'') : queue type assigned to particular interface
  
 
[[Category:Manual]]
 
[[Category:Manual]]
 
[[Category:Unfinished]]
 
[[Category:Unfinished]]

Revision as of 13:37, 30 September 2008

Queues

Submenu level: /queue

Queue implementation in MikroTik RouterOS is based on Hierarchical Token Bucket (HTB). HTB allows to create hierarchical queue structure and determine relations between queues(parent-child, child priority).

In RouterOS it is possible to add queue in 4 different places (HTBs):

  • global-in: represents all the input interfaces in general (INGRESS queue). Queues attached to global-in apply to traffic that is received by the router before the packet filtering
  • global-out: represents all the output interfaces in general (EGRESS queue).
  • global-total: represents all input and output interfaces together (in other words it is aggregation of global-in and global-out). Used in case when customers have single limit for both, upload and download.
  • <interface name>: - represents one particular outgoing interface. Only traffic that is designated to go out via this interface will pass this HTB queue

There are two ways how to add queues in RouterOS:

  • /queue simple menu - designed to ease configuration of simple, everyday queuing tasks (such as single client upload/download limitation, p2p traffic limitation, etc.).
  • /queue tree menu - for implementing advanced queuing tasks (such as global prioritization policy, user group limitations) requires market packet flows from /ip firewall mangle facility.

Simple Queues

Submenu level: /queue simple

Simple queues represents three queues in one. Single simple queue will create one queue in global-in, one queue in global-out and one queue in global-total.

If no settings are specified in upload/download/total part of the queue corresponding queue it will not be created. This way creation of global-total queues can be avoided if separate upload/download limitation is used. This also means that you must change at least one setting in the simple queue to get simple queue working.

Simple queues have strict order - each packet must go through every queue until it will meet all identifiers. (In case of 1000 queues, packet for last queue will need to proceed through 999 queues before it reach the destination)

Flow Identifiers

  • name (Text) : Unique queue identifier that can be used as parent option value for other queues
  • target-addresses (multiple choice: IP address/netmask) : list/range of IP addresses that will be limited by this queue. This is one of two possible options that allow queue to determine what direction is target upload and what direction is target download.
  • interface (Name of interface, or all) : identifies interface the target is connected to. useful in case when it is impossible to determine targets address. This is second of two possible options that allow queue to determine what direction is target upload and what direction is target download.


IF both target-address and interface is not specified queue will be unable to make difference between upload from download and will limit all traffic twice. Use only one of these options at the same queue - in case there will point to opposite sides queue will not work.


  • direction (One of both, upload, download) : allow to enable one-directional limitation for simple queues (disable other direction).
  • time (time-time, sat | fri | thu | wed | tue | mon | sun{+}; default: "") : allow to specify time when particular queue will be active. Router must have correct time settings.
  • dst-address (IP address/netmask) : allows to select only stream for limitation (from target address to this destination address)
  • p2p (all-p2p | bit-torrent | blubster | direct-connect | edonkey | fasttrack | gnutella | soulseek | winmx) : allow to select unencrypted packets of particular p2p for limitation
  • packet-marks (Comma separated list of) : allows to use marked packets from /ip firewall mangle. Take look at this packet flow diagram. You need to make sure that packets are marked before the simple queues (before global-in HTB queue) - that is mangle chain prerouting or else targets download limitation will not work.


HTB Properties

  • parent (Name of , or none) : assigns this queue as a child queue for selected target. Target queue can be HTB queue or any other previously created simple queue. In order for traffic to reach child queues, parent queues must capture all necessary traffic.
  • priority (1..8) : Prioritize one child queue over other child queue. Does not work on parent queues (if queue has at least one child). One is the highest, eight is the lowest priority. Child queue with higher priority will have chance to reach its limit-at before child with lower priority and after that child queue with higher priority will have chance to reach its max-limit before child with lower priority. Priority have nothing to do with bursts.
  • queue (SOMETHING/SOMETHING) : Choose the type of the upload/download queue. Queue types can be created here
  • limit-at (NUMBER/NUMBER) : normal upload/download data rate that is guaranteed to a target
  • max-limit (NUMBER/NUMBER) : maximal upload/download data rate that is allowed for a target to reach
  • burst-limit (NUMBER/NUMBER) : maximal upload/download data rate which can be reached while the burst is active
  • burst-time (TIME/TIME) : period of time, in seconds, over which the average upload/download data rate is calculated. (This is NOT the time of actual burst)
  • burst-threshold (NUMBER/NUMBER) : when average data rate is below this value - burst is allowed, as soon as average data rate reach this value - burst is denied. (basically this is burst on/off switch). For optimal burst behavior this value should above max-limit value and below burst-limit value

And corresponding options for global-total HTB queue:

  • total-queue (SOMETHING/SOMETHING): corresponds to queue only for global-total queue
  • total-limit-at (NUMBER/NUMBER): corresponds to limit-at only for global-total queue
  • total-max-limit (NUMBER/NUMBER): corresponds to max-limit only for global-total queue
  • total-burst-limit (NUMBER/NUMBER): corresponds to burst-limit only for global-total queue
  • total-burst-time (TIME/TIME): corresponds to burst-time only for global-total queue
  • total-burst-threshold (NUMBER/NUMBER): corresponds to burst-threshold only for global-total queue


Statistics

  • rate (read-only/read-only) : average queue passing data rate in bytes per second
  • packet-rate (read-only/read-only) : average queue passing data rate in packets per second
  • bytes (read-only/read-only) : number of bytes processed by this queue
  • packets (read-only/read-only) : number of packets processed by this queue
  • queued-bytes (read-only/read-only) : number of bytes waiting in the queue
  • queued-packets (read-only/read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
  • dropped (read-only/read-only) : number of dropped packets
  • borrows (read-only/read-only) : packets that passed queue over its "limit-at" value (and was unused and taken away from other queues)
  • lends (read-only/read-only) : packets that passed queue below its "limit-at" value OR if queue is a parent - sum of all child borrowed packets
  • pcq-queues (read-only/read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ

And corresponding options for global-total HTB queue:

  • total-rate (read-only): corresponds to rate only for global-total queue
  • total-packet-rate (read-only): corresponds to packet-rate only for global-total queue
  • total-bytes (read-only): corresponds to bytes only for global-total queue
  • total-packets (read-only): corresponds to packets only for global-total queue
  • total-queued-bytes (read-only): corresponds to queued-bytes only for global-total queue
  • total-queued-packets (read-only): corresponds to queued-packets only for global-total queue
  • total-dropped (read-only): corresponds to dropped only for global-total queue
  • total-lends (read-only): corresponds to lends only for global-total queue
  • total-borrows (read-only): corresponds to borrows only for global-total queue
  • total-pcq-queues (read-only): corresponds to pcq-queues only for global-total queue


Queue Tree

Submenu level: /queue type

Queue tree creates only one directional queue in one of the HTBs. It is also the only way how to add queue on the separate interface. This way it is possible to ease mangle configuration - you don't need separate marks for download and upload - only upload will get to private interface and only download will get to Public interface.

Also it is possible to have double queuing (example:prioritization of traffic in global-in or global-out, limitation per client on the outgoing interface) If you have simple queues and queue tree in the same HTB - simple queues will get traffic first.

Queue tree is not ordered - all traffic pass it together.


Flow Identifiers

  • name (Text) : Unique queue identifier that can be used as parent option value for other queues
  • packet-marks (Comma separated list of) : allows to use marked packets from /ip firewall mangle. Take look at this packet flow diagram. You need to make sure that packets are marked before the simple queues (before global-in HTB queue)


HTB Properties

  • parent (Name of , or none) : assigns this queue as a child queue for selected target. Target queue can be HTB queue or any other previously created queue
  • priority (1..8) : Prioritize one child queue over other child queue. Does not work on parent queues (if queue has at least one child). One is the highest, eight is the lowest priority. Child queue with higher priority will have chance to reach its limit-at before child with lower priority and after that child queue with higher priority will have chance to reach its max-limit before child with lower priority. Priority have nothing to do with bursts.
  • queue (SOMETHING) : Choose the type of the queue. Queue types can be created here
  • limit-at (NUMBER) : normal data rate that is guaranteed to a target
  • max-limit (NUMBER) : maximal data rate that is allowed for a target to reach
  • burst-limit (NUMBER) : maximal data rate which can be reached while the burst is active
  • burst-time (TIME) : period of time, in seconds, over which the average data rate is calculated. (This is NOT the time of actual burst)
  • burst-threshold (NUMBER) : when average data rate is below this value - burst is allowed, as soon as average data rate reach this value - burst is denied. (basically this is burst on/off switch). For optimal burst behavior this value should above max-limit value and below burst-limit value


Statistics

  • rate (read-only) : average queue passing data rate in bytes per second
  • packet-rate (read-only) : average queue passing data rate in packets per second
  • bytes (read-only) : number of bytes processed by this queue
  • packets (read-only) : number of packets processed by this queue
  • queued-bytes (read-only) : number of bytes waiting in the queue
  • queued-packets (read-only) : number of packets waiting in the queue
  • dropped (read-only) : number of dropped packets
  • borrows (read-only) : packets that passed queue over its "limit-at" value (and was unused and taken away from other queues)
  • lends (read-only) : packets that passed queue below its "limit-at" value OR if queue is a parent - sum of all child borrowed packets
  • pcq-queues (read-only) : number of PCQ substreams, if queue type is PCQ


Queue Types

Submenu level: /queue type

  • name (Text) : Unique queue identifier that can be used in simple queues and queue tree as value of queue option
  • kind (bfifo | pcq | pfifo | red | sfq) : kind of particular queue type


PFIFO and BFIFO

These queuing disciplines are based on the FIFO algorithm (First-In First-Out). The difference between PFIFO and BFIFO is that one is measured in packets and the other one in bytes.


  • pfifo-limit (number) : Maximum number of packets that the PFIFO queue can hold
  • bfifo-limit (number) : Maximum number of bytes that the BFIFO queue can hold


Every packet that cannot be enqueued (if the queue is full), is dropped. Large queue sizes can increase latency, but utilize channel better.


RED

Random Early Drop is a queuing mechanism which tries to avoid network congestion by controlling the average queue size. When the average queue size reaches red-min-threshold, RED starts to drop packets randomly with linearly increasing probability as the average queue size grows up until the average queue size reaches the red-max-threshold. The effective queue size at any moment could be higher than the red-max-threshold as the probability does not grow very fast, so it is possible to specify a hard limit for the queue size. When the average queue size reaches red-max-threshold or becomes larger, all further packets are dropped until the average queue size does not drop below this values (at which point probabilistic calculations will be activated again).

  • red-avg-packet (number) : Used by RED for average queue size calculations (for packet to byte translation)
  • red-burst (number) : Number of packets allowed for bursts of packets when there are no packets in the queue
  • red-limit(number) : RED queue limit in packets
  • red-max-threshold (number) : The average queue size at which packet marking probability is the highest
  • red-min-threshold (number) : Average queue size in bytes


SFQ

Stochastic Fairness Queuing (SFQ) is ensured by hashing and round-robin algorithms. A traffic flow may be uniquely identified by a 4 options(src-address, dst-address, src-port and dst-port), so these parameters are used by SFQ hashing algorithm to classify packets into one of 1024 possible subqueues. Then round-robin algorithm will start to distribute available bandwidth to all subqueues, on each round giving sfq-allot bytes of traffic. The whole SFQ queue can contain 128 packets and there are 1024 subqueues available.

  • sfq-allot (number) : How often hash function must be refreshed
  • sfq-perturb (time) : Amount of data in bytes that can be sent in one round-robin round


PCQ

Per Connection Queuing (PCQ) is a similar to SFQ, but it has addicional features.

It is possible to choose flow identifiers (from dst-address | dst-port | src-address | src-port). For example if you classify flows by src-address on local interface (interface with your clients), each PCQ subqueue will be one particular client's upload.

It is possible to assign speed limitation to subqueues with pcq-rate option. If pcq-rate=0 subqueues will divide available traffic equally.


  • pcq-classifier (dst-address | dst-port | src-address | src-port; default: "")  : selection of subqueue identifiers
  • pcq-rate (number) : maximal available data rate of each subqueue
  • pcq-limit (number) : queue size of one subqueue in packets
  • pcq-total-limit (number) : queue size of all PCQ in packets


Interface Queue

  • interface(SOMETHING) : name of interface
  • queue (something) : queue type assigned to particular interface