Difference between revisions of "Manual:Router AAA"

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(Properties)
(Properties)
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* <var>policy</var> - policy that grants user management rights. Should be used together with write policy. Allows also to see global variables created by other users (requires also 'test' policy).
 
* <var>policy</var> - policy that grants user management rights. Should be used together with write policy. Allows also to see global variables created by other users (requires also 'test' policy).
 
* <var>test</var> - policy that grants rights to run ping, traceroute, bandwidth-test, wireless scan, sniffer, snooper and other test commands  
 
* <var>test</var> - policy that grants rights to run ping, traceroute, bandwidth-test, wireless scan, sniffer, snooper and other test commands  
* <var>sensitive</var> - grants rights to see sensitive information in the router, see below list as to what is regarded as sensitive.
+
* <var>sensitive</var> - grants rights to change "hide sensitive" option, if this policy is disabled sensitive information is not displayed, see below list as to what is regarded as sensitive.
 
* <var>sniff</var> - policy that grants rights to use packet sniffer tool.  
 
* <var>sniff</var> - policy that grants rights to use packet sniffer tool.  
 
* <var>romon</var> -  
 
* <var>romon</var> -  

Revision as of 13:55, 10 October 2018

Version.png

Applies to RouterOS: 2.9, v3, v4, v5+


Summary

Sub-menu: /user


MikroTik RouterOS router user facility manage the users connecting the router from the local console, via serial terminal, telnet, SSH or Winbox. The users are authenticated using either local database or designated RADIUS server.

Each user is assigned to a user group, which denotes the rights of this user. A group policy is a combination of individual policy items.

In case the user authentication is performed using RADIUS, the RADIUS Client should be previously configured.


User Groups

Sub-menu: /user group

The router user groups provide a convenient way to assign different permissions and access rights to different user classes.


Properties

Property Description
name (string; Default: ) The name of the user group
policy (local | telnet | ssh | ftp | reboot | read | write | policy | test | web | sniff | api | winbox | password | sensitive; Default: ) List of allowed policies:

Login policies:

  • local - policy that grants rights to log in locally via console
  • telnet - policy that grants rights to log in remotely via telnet
  • ssh - policy that grants rights to log in remotely via secure shell protocol
  • web - policy that grants rights to log in remotely via WebBox
  • winbox - policy that grants rights to log in remotely via WinBox and bandwidth test authentication
  • password - policy that grants rights to change the password
  • api - grants rights to access router via API.
  • dude - grants rights to log in to dude server.

Config Policies:

  • ftp - policy that grants full rights to log in remotely via FTP and to transfer files from and to the router. Users with this policy can both read, write and erase files, regardless of "read/write" permission, as that deals only with RouterOS configuration.
  • reboot - policy that allows rebooting the router
  • read - policy that grants read access to the router's configuration. All console commands that do not alter router's configuration are allowed. Doesn't affect FTP
  • write - policy that grants write access to the router's configuration, except for user management. This policy does not allow to read the configuration, so make sure to enable read policy as well
  • policy - policy that grants user management rights. Should be used together with write policy. Allows also to see global variables created by other users (requires also 'test' policy).
  • test - policy that grants rights to run ping, traceroute, bandwidth-test, wireless scan, sniffer, snooper and other test commands
  • sensitive - grants rights to change "hide sensitive" option, if this policy is disabled sensitive information is not displayed, see below list as to what is regarded as sensitive.
  • sniff - policy that grants rights to use packet sniffer tool.
  • romon -

Sensitive information

Starting with RouterOS v3.27, the following information is regarded as sensitive, and can be hidden from certain user groups with the 'sensitive' policy unchecked.

Also, since RouterOS v4.3, backup files are considered sensitive, and users without this policy will not be able to download them in any way.

system package

/radius: secret
/snmp/community: authentication-password, encryption-password

advanced-tools package

/tool/sms: secret

wireless package

/interface/wireless/security-profiles: wpa-pre-shared-key,
wpa2-pre-shared-key, static-key-0, static-key-1, static-key-2,
static-key-3, static-sta-private-key
/interface/wireless/access-list: private-key, private-pre-shared-key

wireless-test package

/interface/wireless/security-profiles: wpa-pre-shared-key, wpa2-pre-shared-key, 
static-key-0, static-key-1, static-key-2, static-key-3, static-sta-private-key, management-protection-key
/interface/wireless/access-list: private-key, private-pre-shared-key, management-protection-key

user-manager package

/tool/user-manager/user: password
/tool/user-manager/customer: password

hotspot package

/ip/hotspot/user: password

ppp package

/ppp/secret: password

security package

/ip/ipsec/installed-sa: auth-key, enc-key
/ip/ipsec/manual-sa: ah-key, esp-auth-key, esp-enc-key
/ip/ipsec/peer: secret

routing package

/routing/bgp/peer: tcp-md5-key
/routing/rip/interface: authentication-key
/routing/ospf/interface: authentication-key
/routing/ospf/virtual-link: authentication-key

routing-test package

/routing/bgp/peer: tcp-md5-key
/routing/rip/interface: authentication-key
/routing/ospf/interface: authentication-key
/routing/ospf/virtual-link: authentication-key 


Notes

There are three system groups which cannot be deleted:

[admin@rb13] > /user group print
 0 name="read" policy=local,telnet,ssh,reboot,read,test,winbox,password,web,!ftp,!write,!policy

 1 name="write" policy=local,telnet,ssh,reboot,read,write,test,winbox,password,web,!ftp,!policy

 2 name="full" policy=local,telnet,ssh,ftp,reboot,read,write,policy,test,winbox,password,web

 3 name="test" policy=ssh,read,policy,!local,!telnet,!ftp,!reboot,!write,!test,!winbox,!password,!web
[admin@rb13] >

Exclamation sign '!' just before policy item name means NOT.


Example

To add reboot group that is allowed to reboot the router locally or using telnet, as well as read the router's configuration, enter the following command:

[admin@rb13] user group> add name=reboot policy=telnet,reboot,read,local
[admin@rb13] user group> print
 0 name="read" policy=local,telnet,ssh,reboot,read,test,winbox,password,web,!ftp,!write,!policy

 1 name="write" policy=local,telnet,ssh,reboot,read,write,test,winbox,password,web,!ftp,!policy

 2 name="full" policy=local,telnet,ssh,ftp,reboot,read,write,policy,test,winbox,password,web

 3 name="reboot" policy=local,telnet,reboot,read,!ssh,!ftp,!write,!policy,!test,!winbox,!password,!web
[admin@rb13] user group>

Router Users

Sub-menu: /user


Router user database stores the information such as username, password, allowed access addresses and group about router management personnel.


Properties

Property Description
address (IP/mask | IPv6 prefix; Default: ) Host or network address from which the user is allowed to log in
group (string; Default: ) Name of the group the user belongs to
name (string; Default: ) User name. Although it must start with an alphanumeric character, it may contain "*", "_", "." and "@" symbols.
password (string; Default: ) User password. If not specified, it is left blank (hit [Enter] when logging in). It conforms to standard Unix characteristics of passwords and may contain letters, digits, "*" and "_" symbols.

Notes

There is one predefined user with full access rights:

[admin@MikroTik] user> print
Flags: X - disabled
  #   NAME                                             GROUP ADDRESS
  0   ;;; system default user
      admin                                            full  0.0.0.0/0

[admin@MikroTik] user>

There always should be at least one user with fulls access rights. If the user with full access rights is the only one, it cannot be removed.

Monitoring Active Users

Sub-menu: /user active

/user active print command shows the currently active users along with respective statisics information.


Properties

All properties are read-only.

Property Description
address (IP/IPv6 address) Host IP/IPv6 address from which the user is accessing the router. 0.0.0.0 means that user is logged in locally
group (string) Group that user belongs to.
name (string) User name.
radius (true | false) Whether user is authenticated by RADIUS server.
via (console | telnet | ssh |winbox | api | web) User's access method
when (time) Time and date when user logged in.


Example

To print currently active users, enter the following command:

[admin@dzeltenais_burkaans] /user active> print detail 
Flags: R - radius 
 0   when=dec/08/2010 16:19:24 name="admin" address=10.5.8.52 via=winbox 

 2   when=dec/09/2010 09:23:04 name="admin" address=10.5.101.38 via=telnet 

 3   when=dec/09/2010 09:34:27 name="admin" address=fe80::21a:4dff:fe5d:8e56 via=api 

Remote AAA

Sub-menu: /user aaa

Router user remote AAA enables router user authentication and accounting via RADIUS server. The RADIUS user database is consulted only if the required username is not found in the local user database


Properties

Property Description
accounting (yes | no; Default: yes)
exclude-groups (list of group names; Default: ) Exclude-groups consists of the groups that should not be allowed to be used

for users authenticated by radius. If radius server provides group specified in this list, default-group will be used instead.


This is to protect against privilege escalation when one user (without policy permission) can change radius server list, setup it's own radius server and

log in as admin.
default-group (string; Default: read) User group used by default for users authenticated via RADIUS server.
interim-update (time; Default: 0s) Interim-Update time interval
use-radius (yes |no; Default: no) Enable user authentication via RADIUS


Icon-note.png

Note: If you are using RADIUS, you need to have CHAP support enabled in the RADIUS server for Winbox to work


SSH Keys

Sub-menu: /user ssh-keys


This menu allows to import public keys used for ssh authentication.

Icon-warn.png

Warning: User is not allowed to login via ssh by password if ssh-keys for the user is added



Properties:

Property Description
user (string; Default: ) username to which ssh key is assigned.


Read-only properties:

Property Description
key-owner (string)


When importing ssh key by /user ssh-keys import command you will be asked for two parameters:

  • public-key-file - file name in routers root directory containing the key.
  • user - name of the user to which key will be assigned


Private keys

Sub-menu: /user ssh-keys private

This menu is used to import and list imported private keys. Private keys are used to authenticate remote login attempts using certificates.

Read-only properties:

Property Description
user (string)
key-owner (string)


When importing ssh keys from this sub menu using /user ssh-keys private import command you will be asked for three parameters:

  • private-key-file - file name in routers root directory containing private key.
  • public-key-file - file name in routers root directory containing public key.
  • user - name of the user to which key will be assigned

Example

Read full example >>