Manual:SNMP

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Revision as of 11:51, 9 December 2011 by Normis (talk | contribs) (Traps)
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Applies to RouterOS: v5

Overview

Standards: RFC 1157
Package: system


Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. SNMP can be used to graph various data with tools such as CACTI, MRTG or The Dude

RouterOS supports SNMP v1,2 and 3. SNMP write is also supported.


Example Cacti graph made with data from SNMP


Quick Configuration

To enable SNMP in RouterOS:

[admin@MikroTik] /snmp> print 
       enabled: no
       contact: 
       location: 
       engine-id: 
       trap-community: (unknown)
       trap-version: 1
[admin@MikroTik] /snmp>  set enabled yes

You can also specify administrative contact information in the above settings. All SNMP data will be available to communities configured in community menu.

General Properties

Sub-menu: /snmp


This sub menu allows to enable SNMP and to configure general settings.


Property Description
contact (string; Default: "") Contact information
enabled (yes | no; Default: no) Used to disable/enable SNMP service
engine-id (string; Default: "")
location (string; Default: "") Location information
trap-community (string; Default: public) Which communities configured in community menu to use.
trap-generators (interfaces | start-trap; Default: )
trap-interfaces (string | all; Default: )
trap-target (list of IP/IPv6; Default: 0.0.0.0)
trap-version (1|2|3; Default: 1)

Community

Sub-menu: /snmp community


This sub-menu allows to set up access rights for the SNMP data.

There is little security in v1 and v2c, just Clear text community string („username“) and ability for Limiting access by IP adress.

Since SNMP v3, better options have been introduced - Authorisation (User + Pass) with MD5/SHA1, Encryption with DES.


[admin@MikroTik] /snmp community> print value-list 
                     name: public
                  address: 0.0.0.0/0
                 security: none
              read-access: yes
             write-access: no
  authentication-protocol: MD5
      encryption-protocol: DES
  authentication-password: *****
      encryption-password: *****

Icon-warn.png

Warning: Default settings only have one community named public without any additional security settings. These settings should be considered insecure and should be adjusted according required security profile.



Properties

Property Description
address (IP/IPv6 address; Default: 0.0.0.0/0) Addresses from which connections to SNMP server is allowed
authentication-password (string; Default: "") Password used to authenticate connection to the server (SNMPv3)
authentication-protocol (MD5 | SHA1; Default: MD5) Protocol used for authentication (SNMPv3)
encryption-password (string; Default: "") password used for encryption (SNMPv3)
encryption-protocol (DES; Default: DES) encryption protocol to be used to encrypt the communication (SNMPv3)
name (string; Default: )
read-access (yes | no; Default: yes) Whether read access is enabled for this community
security (authorized | none | private; Default: none)
write-access (yes | no; Default: no) Whether write access is enabled for this community. Read more >>

Management information base (MIB)

The Management Information Base (MIB) is the database of information maintained by the agent that the manager can query. You can download the latest MikroTik RouterOS MIB file.

MIBs used in RouterOS v5.x:

  • MIKROTIK-MIB
  • MIB-2
  • HOST-RESOURCES-MIB
  • IF-MIB
  • IP-MIB
  • IP-FORWARD-MIB
  • IPV6-MIB
  • BRIDGE-MIB
  • DHCP-SERVER-MIB
  • CISCO-AAA-SESSION-MIB
  • ENTITY-MIB
  • UPS-MIB
  • SQUID-MIB

Object identifiers (OID)

Each OID identifies a variable that can be read via SNMP. Although the MIB file contains all the needed OID values, you can also print individual OID information in the console with the print oid command at any menu level:

[admin@MikroTik] /interface> print oid

Flags: D - dynamic, X - disabled, R - running, S - slave 
 0  R  name=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 mtu=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.4.1 
       mac-address=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.6.1 admin-status=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.1 
       oper-status=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.1 bytes-in=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.1 
       packets-in=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.11.1 discards-in=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.13.1 
       errors-in=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.14.1 bytes-out=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16.1 
       packets-out=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.17.1 discards-out=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.19.1 
       errors-out=.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.20.1 

Traps

SNMP traps enable an agent to notify the management station of significant events by way of an unsolicited SNMP message.

Property Desciption
trap-generators (interfaces, start-trap) what action will generate traps
  • interfaces - interface changes;
  • start-trap - snmp server starting on the router
trap-interfaces ( interface list ) list of interfaces that traps are going to be sent out
trap-target (list of IP addresses) IP (IPv4 or IPv6) addresses of SNMP data collectors that have to receive the trap
trap-version (1 | 2 | 3} version of SNMP protocol to use for trap
trap-community (community name) what community with security settings to use when sending out the generated traps

SNMP write

Since RouterOS v3, SNMP write is supported for some functions. SNMP write allows to change router configuration with SNMP requests. Consider to secure access to router or to router's SNMP, when SNMP and write-access are enabled.

To change settings by SNMP requests, use the command below to allow SNMP write for the selected community, Write-access option for SNMP is available from v3.14,

/snmp community set <number> write-access=yes


System Identity

It's possible to change router system identity by SNMP set command,

snmpset -c public -v 1 192.168.0.0 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0  s New_Identity
  • snmpset - SNMP application used for SNMP SET requests to set information on a network entity;
  • public - router's community name;
  • 192.168.0.0 - IP address of the router;
  • 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0 - SNMP value for router's identity;

SNMPset command above is equal to the RouterOS command,

/system identity set identity=New_Identity

Reboot

It's possible to reboot the router with SNMP set commamd, you need to set value for reboot SNMP settings, which is not equal to 0,

snmpset -c public -v 1 192.168.0.0 1.3.6.1.4.1.14988.1.1.7.1.0 s 1
  • 1.3.6.1.4.1.14988.1.1.7.1.0, SNMP value for the router reboot;
  • s 1, snmpset command to set value, value should not be equal to 0;

Reboot snmpset command is equal to the RouterOS command,

/system reboot

Run Script

SNMP write allows to run scripts on the router from system script menu, when you need to set value for SNMP setting of the script,

 
snmpset -c public -v 1 192.168.0.0 1.3.6.1.4.1.14988.1.1.8.1.1.3.X s 1
  • X, script number, numeration starts from 1;
  • s 1, snmpset command to set value, value should not be equal to 0;

The same command on RouterOS,


/system script> print 
Flags: I - invalid 
 0   name="kaka" owner="admin" policy=ftp,reboot,read,write,policy,
test,winbox,password,sniff last-started=jan/01/1970
01:31:57 run-count=23 source=:beep 

/system script run 0


See Also


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