Manual:Interworking Profiles

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Applies to RouterOS: v6

Summary

Interworking

Interworking is the occurrence of two or more things working together. For devices to work successfully together information must be supplied from one to other. In order to supply more information between access points and client devices than in basic beacons and probe requests, in 2011 new protocol was made: IEEE Std 802.11u™-2011: Interworking with External Networks. With Interworking service network discovery and access point selection process can be enhanced. Client devices can have more criteria upon which to choose the network with which to associate.

Hotspot 2.0

Hotspot 2.0 is a specification developed and owned by Wi-Fi Alliance. It was designed to enable a more cellular-like experience when connecting to Wi-Fi networks. In the attempt to increase wireless network security Hotspot 2.0 access points use mandatory WPA2 authentication.

Hotspot 2.0 relies tightly on interworking as well as ads some of its own properties and procedures.

Implementation

In RouterOS implementation of Interworking and Hotspot 2.0 stick very closely to the technical specification.

Configuration Properties

Information elements in beacon and probe response

Some information can be added to beacon and probe response packets with interworking element. Following parameters of Interworking element can be configured:


Property Description
asra (yes | no; Default: no) Additional Steps Required for Access. Set to yes, if a user should take additional steps to access the internet, like the walled garden.
esr (yes | no; Default: no) Emergency services reachable (ESR). Set to yes in order to indicate that emergency services are reachable through the access point.
hessid (MAC address; Default: ) Homogenous extended service set identifier (HESSID). Devices that provide access to same external networks are in one homogenous extended service set. This service set can be identified by HESSID that is the same on all access points in this set. 6-byte value of HESSID is represented as MAC address. It should be globally unique, therefore it is advised to use one of the MAC address of access point in the service set.
internet (yes | no; Default: yes) Whether the internet is available through this connection or not. This information is included in the interworking element.
network-type (emergency-only | personal-device | private | private-with-guest | public-chargeable | public-free | test | wildcard; Default: wildcard) Information about network access type.
  • emergency-only - a network dedicated and limited to accessing emergency services;
  • personal-device - a network of personal devices. An example of this type of network is a camera that is attached to a printer, thereby forming a network for the purpose of printing pictures;
  • private - network for users with user accounts. Usually used in enterprises for employees, not guests;
  • private-with-guest - same as private, but guest accounts are available;
  • public-chargeable - a network that is available to anyone willing to pay. For example, a subscription to Hotspot 2.0 service or in-room internet access in a hotel;
  • public-free - network is available to anyone without any fee. For example, municipal network in city or airport hotspot;
  • test - network used for testing and experimental uses. Not used in production;
  • wildcard - is used on wireless clients. Sending probe request with a wildcard as network type value will make all interworking access points respond despite their actual network-type setting.
A client sends a probe request frame with network-type set to value it is interested in. It will receive replies only from access points with the same value (except the case of wildcard).
uesa (yes | no; Default: no) Unauthenticated emergency service accessible (UESA).
  • no - indicate that no unauthenticated emergency services are reachable through this AP;
  • yes - indicate that higher layer unauthenticated emergency services are reachable through this AP.
venue (venue; Default: unspecified) Specify the venue in which the access point is located. Choose the value from available ones. Some examples:
venue=business-bank
venue=mercantile-shopping-mall
venue=educational-university-or-college

ANQP elements

Access network query protocol (ANQP). Not all necessary information is included in probe response and beacon frames. For client device to get more information before choosing access point to associate with ANQP is used. The access point can have stored information in multiple ANQP elements. Client device will use ANQP to query only for the information it is interested in. This reduces the time needed before association.


Property Description
3gpp (octet string in hex; Default: ) Cellular network advertisement information - country and network codes. This helps Hotspot 2.0 client in the selection of an access point to access 3GPP network. Please see 3GPP TS 24.302. (Annex H) for a format of this field. This value is sent ANQP response if queried.
authentication-types (dns-redirection:url | https-redirection:url | online-enrollment:url | terms-and-conditions:url; Default: ) This property is only effective when asra is set to yes. Value of url is optional and not needed if dns-redirection or online-enrollment is selected. To set the value of url to empty string use double quotes. Like:
authentication-types=online-enrollment:""
connection-capabilities (number:number:closed|open|unknown; Default: ) This option allows to provide information about allowed IP protocols and ports. This information can be provided in ANQP response. The first number represents the IP protocol number, the second number represents a port number.
  • closed - set if protocol and port combination is not allowed;
  • open - set if protocol and port combination is allowed;
  • unknown - set if protocol and port combination is either open or closed.

Example:

connection-capabilities=6:80:open,17:5060:closed

Setting such value access point informs station, that is connecting, that HTTP(6 - TCP, 80 - HTTP) is allowed and VoIP (17 - UDP; 5060 - VoIP) is not allowed.

This property does not restrict or allow these protocols and ports, it only gives information to station device which is connecting to access point.
domain-names (list of strings; Default: ) None or more fully qualified domain names (FQDN) that indicate the entity operating the hotspot. A station that is connecting to the access point can request this AQNP property and check if there is a suffix match with any of the domain names it has credentials to.
ipv4-availability (double-nated | not-available | port-restricted | port-restricted-double-nated | port-restricted-single-nated | public | single-nated | unknown; Default: not-available) Information about what IPv4 address and access are available.
  • not-available - Address type not available;
  • public - public IPv4 address available;
  • port-restricted - port-restricted IPv4 address available;
  • single-nated - single NATed private IPv4 address available;
  • double-nated - double NATed private IPv4 address available;
  • port-restricted-single-nated -port-restricted IPv4 address and single NATed IPv4 address available;
  • port-restricted-double-nated - port-restricted IPv4 address and double NATed IPv4 address available;
  • unknown - availability of the address type is not known.
ipv6-availability (available | not-available | unknown; Default: not-available) Information about what IPv6 address and access are available.
  • not-available - Address type not available;
  • available - address type available;
  • unknown - availability of the address type is not known.
realms (string:eap-sim|eap-tls|not-specified; Default: ) Information about supported realms and the corresponding EAP method.
realms=example.com:eap-tls,foo.ba:not-specified
realms-raw (octet string in hex; Default: ) Set NAI Realm ANQP-element manually.
roaming-ois (octet string in hex; Default: ) Organization identifier (OI) usually are 24-bit is unique identifiers like organizationally unique identifier (OUI) or company identifier (CID). In some cases, OI is longer for example OUI-36.

A subscription service provider (SSP) can be specified by its OI. roaming-ois property can contain zero or more SSPs OIs whose networks are accessible via this AP. Length of OI should be specified before OI itself. For example, to set E4-8D-8C and 6C-3B-6B:

roaming-ois=03E48D8C036C3B6B
venue-names (string:lang; Default: ) Venue name can be used to provide additional info on the venue. It can help the client to choose a proper access point.

Venue-names parameter consists of zero or more duples that contain Venue Name and Language Code:

venue-names=CoffeeShop:eng,TiendaDeCafe:es
The Language Code field value is a two or three-character 8 language code selected from ISO-639.


Hotspot 2.0 ANQP elements

Hotspot 2.0 specification introduced some additional ANQP elements. These elements use ANQP vendor specific element ID. Here are available properties to change these elements.


Property Description
hotspot20 (yes | no; Default: yes) Indicate Hotspot 2.0 capability of the access point.
hotspot20-dgaf (yes | no; Default: yes) Downstream Group-Addressed Forwarding (DGAF). Sets value of DGAF bit to indicate whether multicast and broadcast frames to clients are disabled or enabled.
  • yes - multicast and broadcast frames to clients are enabled;
  • no - multicast and broadcast frames to clients are disabled.
To disable multicast and broadcast frames set multicast-helper=full.
operational-classes (list of numbers; Default: ) Information about other available bands of the same ESS.
operator-names (string:lang; Default: ) Set operator name. Language must be specified for each operator name entry.

Operator-names parameter consists of zero or more duples that contain Operator Name and Language Code:

operator-names=BestOperator:eng,MejorOperador:es
The Language Code field value is a two or three-character 8 language code selected from ISO-639.
wan-at-capacity (yes | no; Default: no) Whether the access point or network is at its max capacity. If set to yes no additional mobile devices will be permitted to associate to the AP.
wan-downlink (number; Default: 0) The downlink speed of WAN connection set in kbps. If downlink speed is not known, set to 0.
wan-downlink-load (number; Default: 0) The downlink load of WAN connection measured over wan-measurement-duration. Values from 0 to 255.
  • 0 - unknown;
  • 255 - 100%.
wan-measurement-duration (number; Default: 0) Duration during which wan-downlink-load and wan-uplink-load are measured. Value is a numeric value from 0 to 65535 representing tenths of seconds.
  • 0 - not measured;
  • 10 - 1 second;
  • 65535 - 1 hour 49 minutes or more.
wan-status (down | reserved | test | up; Default: reserved) Information about the status of access points WAN connection. The value reserved is not used.
wan-symmetric (yes | no; Default: no) Weather WAN link is symmetric (upload and download speeds are the same) or not.
wan-uplink (number; Default: 0) The uplink speed of WAN connection set in kbps. If uplink speed is not known set to 0.
wan-uplink-load (number; Default: 0) The uplink load of WAN connection measured over wan-measurement-duration. Values from 0 to 255.
  • 0 - unknown;
  • 255 - 100%.

Other Properties

Property Description
comment (string; Default: ) Short description of the profile
name (string; Default: ) Name of interworking profile.

See also